LEARNING FROM STUDY ABROAD EXPERIENCE: CASE OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS WHO PARTICIPATED IN AN EXCHANGE PROGRAM DURING HIGH SCHOOL
Ms. Aya Iwamoto
Learning from Study Abroad Experience: Case of University Students Who Participated in an Exchange Program during High School
This study focuses on the Japanese individual’s experience of a 10-month long exchange program during high school, and aims to explain how they learn longitudinally from that experience. 25 university students were interviewed and the data was analyzed qualitatively.
Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
Keio University / Shinshu University
Learning from Study Abroad Experience: Case of University Students Who Participated in an Exchange Program during High School
Study abroad programs are being promoted as a part of Japanese national policy for human resource development. It is expected that students who study abroad learn something positive from it, and apply those “lessons” later in their lives. However, it has not yet been sufficiently clarified how studying abroad brings positive effects to the future of an individual, and that of the nation. More than a few international educators and researchers in the field of international education agree that learning from study abroad experience doesn’t happen automatically, and are trying to figure out how each targeted competence, such as intercultural competence or language fluency, can be acquired during studying abroad. However, for a country’s human resource development policy, it is more important to specify what kind of “events” during studying abroad has a positive impact on the future of an individual, and that of the nation, as well as the process in which those “events” bring an individual useful “lessons”, so that the government can efficiently invest its financial resources: in an effective study abroad program that includes such “events” and process. The importance of this perspective in choosing or designing effective study abroad programs become especially clear when we consider that we are in an complex era where “Education abroad options have also become more diverse (…) and motivated by a wider range of goals”(Jackson, 2012, p.449).
The aim of this research is to explain from what kind of “events” and through which process Japanese students learn from their study abroad experiences. The word “learning” here is defined widely as “a relatively permanent change in cognition, behavior and affect that occurs as a result of experience (Nakahara, 2010, p.8). The impact of that learning on their future will be discussed in an upcoming paper.
This research focuses on the Japanese individual’s experience of a 10-month-long exchange program during high school. The system of 10-month-long exchange programs is one of the typical forms of studying abroad for high school students in most countries. About 1000 students from Japanese high schools participate in such programs every year1. The reason for choosing high school students’ experience for this research, instead of that of university students, is following: In spite of being pointed out in an earlier study that studying abroad experience impacts high school students more than university students, and can go as far as to change personalities in the case of the former (Yokota, 1997, p.16), the difference between experiences of high school students studying abroad and those of university students is often ignored. In the Japanese academic field of studying abroad, university students are the target of observation in far more occasions than high school students. In view of the recent trend in Japan about studying abroad at a lower age, e.g. the numerical goal set by the government to send abroad 60,0002 high school students yearly by 2020, more research on experience of high school students is urgently needed.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted individually with 25 Japanese university students who had participated in an exchange program during high school. Countries they had stayed as an exchange student are various, including those in North America, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Oceania. Applying the framework of leadership development by McCall (1988) and McCall et al. (1988), each interviewee offered 3-6 examples of a set of “events” and “lessons” that they had experienced during their study abroad, and now as university students find significant in their lives. The “events” and “lessons” they mentioned were then organized into common themes. In order to illustrate this process, the interview data was also analyzed in accordance to the Modified Grounded Theory Approach (M-GTA), which was developed by Kinoshita (1999) and considered to be appropriate for clarifying a process. In the presentation the results will be reported and examined in comparison to related studies.
1 The number was estimated by the author, referring to Japan Association of International Educational Exchange Organizations for High School Students (2011) and Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (2014).
2 The number is considered to include shorter stays.
Japan Association of International Educational Exchange Organizations for High School Students. (2011). A Handbook of Exchange Programs for High School Students 2011: Intercultural Experience Learning [Koko-sei Kokan-Ryugaku Program Yoran 2011: Ibunka-Taiken-Gakushu]. Tokyo: Japan Association of International Educational Exchange Organizations for High School Students [Ko-Ryu-Ren].
Jackson, J. (2012). Education Abroad. In: J. Jackson (Ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Language and Intercultural Communication (pp.449-463). Oxon: Routledge.
Kinoshita, Y. (1999). Grounded Theory Approach: Regeneration of Qualitative Empirical Research. Tokyo: Kobundo.
McCall, M. W., Jr. (1988). Developing Executives through Work Experiences. Human Resource Planning, Vol.11(1), 1-11.
McCall, M. W., Jr., Lombardo, M. M., & Morrison, A. M. (1988). The Lessons of Experience. New York: Free Press.
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. (2014). The State of International Relations in High Schools 2013 [Heisei-25nendo Kotogakko-to ni okeru Kokusai-Koryu-to no Jokyo ni tsuite]. Retrieved September 24, 2015 from
Nakahara, J. (2010). Learning in the Workplace [Syokuba Gakushu-Ron]. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.
Yokota, M. (1997). The Impact of Study Abroad during Adolescence: Experience of Japanese High School Students and University Students [Seinen-ki ni okeru Ryugaku no Impact: Nippon-jin Koko-sei to Daigaku-sei no Ryugaku-Taiken]. Culture and Psyche: Japanese Journal of Transcultural Psychiatry [Bunka to Kokoro: Tabunka-kan Seisin Igaku Kenkyu], 2(1), 12-16.
RECENT GRAMMATICAL CHANGES IN CONTEMPORARY BRITISH ENGLISH: VERB COMPLEMENTATION IN ACADEMIC WRITING
KYOTO UNIVERSITY, JAPAN ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
Dr. Yoko Iyeiri English Department
Kyoto University, Japan.
Recent Grammatical Changes in Contemporary British English: Verb Complementation in Academic Writing
This paper discusses some recent changes in the usage of the verb “forbid” in English. Despite the statement in dictionaries and grammars that it is usually followed by to- infinitive, it is increasingly followed by gerund complements in contemporary English. This paper examines this alleged tendency by analyzing some corpora, and concludes that the increase of the gerund complementation in English will be further accelerated in the near future.
Recent Grammatical Changes in Contemporary British English: Verb Complementation in Academic Writing*
The present paper discusses some recent changes in English verb complementation, highlighting in particular the verb forbid. Despite the description in dictionaries and grammars that the same verb is usually followed by to-infinitives, it is increasingly followed by gerund complements in contemporary English: Dixon (1991: 236), for example, states that “[o]ne hears both She forbade him to go and She forbade him from going, with no difference in meaning”, while commenting at the same time that the construction with gerunds “accords better with the negative meaning of this verb”. It is also commonly pointed out in existing studies that Burchfield’s (1998: 306) revision of Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage accepts the use of gerund complements, while Fowler’s (1926) original work considered the same construction of forbid to be “unidiomatic”.
The present paper tests this alleged tendency by investigating the behaviour of this verb in British Academic Written English (BAWE) and other Present-day English data. BAWE is a corpus developed during the period 2004-2007 “at the Universities of Warwick, Reading and Oxford Brookes under the directorship of Hilary Nesi and Sheena Gardner (formerly of the Centre for Applied Linguistics [previously called CELTE], Warwick), Paul Thompson (Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading) and Paul Wickens (Westminster Institute of Education, Oxford Brookes), with funding from the ESRC (RES-000-23-0800)” (http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/al/research/collect/ bawe/), and includes essays and other writings by students at the level of higher education in the UK. While it includes an approximate total of 6 million words, the present study extracts about 4.5 million words from them, all written by native speakers of English. The rest of the corpus consists of writings by non-native speakers of English. The principal aim of the present study is to see whether the major shift from “forbid + to-infinitives” to “forbid + -ing” is observed in written British English in recent years. BAWE is an excellent corpus for this purpose as it includes various pieces of external information related to the authors, such as gender and age. Most of them were relatively young at least when the corpus was compiled. Hence, the present research is concerned with the complement shift evidenced in English of younger generation around the turn of the twenty-first century. Non-native speakers’ English is for this reason excluded from the present analysis.
*This study was in part supported by JSPS Kakenhi (Grant Number 26370562).
The research shows a notable increase of gerundial constructions in recent English, at least in comparison to some data in the twentieth century, but there is a noticeable difference between the active and passive voices. The expansion of gerunds is further advanced in the active voice than in the passive. To-infinitives are still used dominantly in the passive voice. The difference may be explained from various perspectives. One possible explanation is concerned with the matter of style: the passive is often considered to be more formal (cf. Zwicky 1981: 73) and therefore can invite the use of to-infinitives prescribed in dictionaries and grammars. Another explanation views the recent trend within the framework of the historical development of complementation in general, where infinitives are increasingly replaced by gerunds (cf. Iyeiri 2010). The difference between the active voice and the passive voice may simply be due to the difference of speed in this development. The present paper considers several possible factors like these, all related to the shift from “forbid + to-infinitives” to “forbid + -ing”, and concludes that the trend will be further accelerated in the near future.
Burchfield, Robert W. 1998. The New Fowler’s Modern English Usage. Revised 3rd edition. Oxford : Clarendon Press.
Dixon, Robert M. W. 1991. A New Approach to English Grammar, on Semantic Principles. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Fowler, Henry W. 1926. A Dictionary of Modern English Usage. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Iyeiri, Yoko. 2010. Verbs of Implicit Negation and their Complements in the History of English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Zwicky, Ann D. 1981. “Styles”, in Style and Variables in English, ed. Timothy Shopen & Joseph M. Williams, pp. 63-83. Cambridge, Mass: Winthrop Publishers.
COMMUNITY ART PROJECT
JEONG, E. K.
SOUTHWESTERN OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF ART, COMMUNICATION, AND THEATRE
Dr. E.K. Jeong
Dept. of Art, Communication, and Theatre
Southwestern Oklahoma State University.
Community Art Project
This paper is a case study of a community tapestry art project, a multi-year effort to plan, fund, design, construct, and exhibit a collaborative public art in Western Oklahoma. Though my study is particular to Oklahoma, it posits generalizable knowledge for artists and arts administrators undertaking collaborative community art projects.
Community Art Project
E.K. Jeong, MFA, Ph.D.
Department of Art, Communication and Theatre
Southwestern Oklahoma State University
The Community Art Project (The Tapestry Project) is a 30‐month effort to plan, fund, design, construct, and exhibit a work of collaborative public art in a small rural community in Western Oklahoma. Utilizing autoethnography and autobiography as research methodologies, I reexamine and reflect upon the project using photos, video, and personal documentation journals to explore the challenges, successes, and lessons learned in The Tapestry Project as well as the suitability of tapestry as a medium for communal public art efforts. The Tapestry Project resulted from a of series of collaborative volunteer groups: a large initial group that contributed to the inspiration for and design of the project; another large group that provided material, logistical, administrative, and emotional support for the project; a yet larger group that participated in the project as patrons and consumers of art; and a smaller group that committed to an 11‐month studio schedule that resulted in the production of 7 foot x 14 foot work of public fiber art entitled Sun on Earth. Sun on Earth is a work that is of, by, and for the people of Weatherford, Oklahoma: a product of the collective vision and the collective labor of non‐professional volunteers. Though my study is particular to Oklahoma, it posits generalizable knowledge and guidance for arts administrators, artists, and community members undertaking collaborative community art projects in other areas and communities. The Tapestry Project models how experience and strategies can raise interest in and awareness of public art.
ARTWORK VIRUSES: WHAT VIRUSES TEACH US ABOUT ART
KIM, DONG GYU
YONSEI UNIVERSITY, SOUTH KOREA DEPT. OF PHILOSOPHY
YONSEI UNIVERSITY, SOUTH KOREA DEPT. OF SYSTEMS BIOLOGY
Dr. Dong Gyu Kim
Dept. of Philosophy
Yonsei University South Korea.
Dr. Eungbin Kim
Dept. of Systems Biology
Yonsei University South Korea.
Artwork Viruses: What Viruses Teach Us about Art
Viruses are parasitic marginal existences living in the borders between life and non-life. Likewise artworks are lifeless by themselves, and it only receives life through artists, who serve as the intermediate hosts for artworks. The audience are the definitive hosts, who maintain and spread corresponding artworks. We combine ideas and concepts of philosophy and biology to suggest that artworks are spiritual and ontological existences, which gain life only through living human beings.
Artwork Viruses : What Viruses Teach Us about Art
Kim, Dong Gyu
Department of Philosophy
Department of Systems Biology
Dr. Kim, Dong Gyu
Department of Philosophy
Yonsei University, South Korea
Dr. Kim, Eungbin
Department of Systems Biology
Yonsei University, South Korea
Artwork Viruses : What Viruses Teach Us about Art
Viruses are parasitic marginal existences living in the borders between life and non-life. Likewise artworks are lifeless by themselves, and it only receives life through artists, who serve as the intermediate hosts for artworks. The audience are the definitive hosts, who maintain and spread corresponding artworks. We combine ideas and concepts of philosophy and biology to suggest that artworks are spiritual and ontological existences, which gain life only through living human beings.
Biologically viruses can be regarded not only as complex aggregations of non-living chemicals, but as simple living systems. Viruses are inert outside living host cells while they are alive and multiply in the host cells they infect. In this sense, viruses are parasitic marginal existences living in the borders between life and non-life. Likewise artworks are lifeless by themselves, and it only receives life through artists, who serve as the intermediate hosts for artworks. The audience are the definitive hosts, who maintain and spread corresponding artworks. For instance, Beethoven’s music, which was appreciated only in few European states during his time, receives global attention 180 years after his death. His works have become viral: they have survived time and space (survival), have gone through re-creations (mutation/evolution), and have scattered vastly (reproduction). Virus is the unsurpassed authority on mutation and reproduction in the biosphere, and the creative works of human beings follow the prototype biological tactics of viruses. Accordingly, the term “artwork virus” is not just a rhetorical metaphor. In the present work, we combine ideas and concepts of two seemingly distant disciplines – philosophy and biology – to suggest that artworks are spiritual and ontological existences, which gain life only through living human beings, just as viruses require living hosts to thrive.
Artwork Viruses : What Viruses Teach Us about Art
Dong Gyu Kim1 and Eungbin Kim2
1Department of Philosophy, Yonsei University
2Department of Systems Biology Yonsei University,
In 2011, the sculpture by the German artist Martin Kippenberger (see the photo above), widely regarded as one of the most talented artists until his death in 1997, was on view at Germany’s Ostwall Museum in Dortmund. His work consisted of a wooden structure with a rubber trough painted to look as though it had once contained some dirty rainwater.
Kippenberger had spread a layer of paint representing dried rainwater. Unfortunately a janitor mistook the hand-painted patina for simple dirt and scrubbed it away. A spokeswoman for the museum said, “it is now impossible to return it to its original state” adding that it had been on loan to the museum from a private collector and was valued by insurers at $1.1 million.1
Until recently, we often encounter with such silly stories. Reasons why these “accidents” happen one after another are as follows: 1) Absence of the artistic insight of citizens. 2) Contemporary artist’s using of the ready-made resources rather than the traditional (natural) as materials of works. 3) Preference of an open public over a closed gallery for an exhibition. 4) Mysterious raison d’être of artwork, that is to say, the way of being of artwork is too strange to be recognized easily. Among all, this last reason is important in our context.
Art seems to be, but at the same time it seems not to be. Art is what it is and what is not. The topos(τόπος: place) of art is located at the ambiguous boundary between being and nonbeing. Where is the art? What is it? And how is it?; these questions have been fundamental problems handed down in the history of aesthetics. It is not an exaggeration to say that the history of aesthetics was the arena to seek the best solution for these problems. If so, where is the art? Does it indeed exist in everything? Even in trash?
1Refer to the following web site. “$1.1 million sculpture damaged by cleaning woman in German museum” http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/arts-post/post/11-million-sculpture-damaged-by-cleaning-woman-ingerman-museum/2011/11/07/gIQAMkmFvM_blog.html and “Overzealous cleaner ruins £690,000 artwork that she thought was dirty” http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2011/nov/03/overzealous-cleaner-ruinsartwork
Viruses could help us to understand the work of art better. Let’s listen to what viruses teach us about art. Some readers might feel discomfort in trying to compare humble things (viruses) to the best products of the human mind (artworks). In spite of the potential discomfort, we will use ‘artwork viruses’ as the central metaphor, because this metaphor can help us to elucidate the specificity of the artwork philosophically. Normally, “metaphors we live by”2 should meet two conditions. One is the ‘novelty’ (not cliche), the other is the ‘significance’ (not nonsense) created despite the juxtaposition of unfitting words. The freshness of our metaphor might be derived from a finding of similarity between the highest and lowest species (human vs. virus) of the biosphere. Now let’s take a look at the significances of this metaphor.
II. The specificity of viruses
Biologically viruses can be regarded not only as complex aggregations of non-living chemicals, but as the simplest living systems. Viruses are inert outside living host cells while they live and multiply in the host cells they infect. In this sense, viruses are parasitic marginal existences living in the borders between life and non-life. The specificity of viruses is the parasitism depending on the other absolutely.
Viruses have a parasitic lifestyle. They neither react to external stimuli nor replicatethemselves until they meet a host. If such viruses meet a host, they suddenly change theirappearance like an organism. While they succeed in parasitizing a host, they replicaterepeatedly and extend their presence. So they infect quickly a lot of hosts near the firstinfected. Like a ghost that haunts across time and space, viruses are lurk anywhere the hostexists. Only through parasitizing hosts, they reveal their capabilities.
What is at the boundary is something far distant from the center. It is like a stranger strolling on the state border. Thus, it is the unassigned and unidentified, which is excluded from the epistemological taxonomy. Virus is such a thing. It is a being which is either life or non-life. At the same time, it is neither life nor non-life. In other words, it cannot be assigned clearly to any class. It has a way of being that can traverse between being and non-being, like a ghost (etymologically derived from the German word, Geist).
As mentioned above, these features are true of art too. Now what we should notice is this decisive similarity found between virus and art. In order to elucidate the secret being of art, we introduce two German philosophers, Wilhelm Dilthey (1833-1911) and Martin Heidegger(1889-1976). On the one hand, both of them articulated the essence of art philosophically, and the other hand, they had a deep interest in the relationship between art and science
III. Art as Ghost and Being
Dilthey understood that the artwork is a kind of “spirit (Geist: ghost).”3 According to him, spirit is a peculiar property of the finite human being, i.e. of historical life. And the artwork is nothing else but a expression of this spirit. In contrast to Dilthey, Heidegger grasps the artwork with his technical term, “Being (Sein).” Being is historical and reveals itself only through finite human being (Dasein). The artwork is a place where Being uncovers itself. And it gets necessarily involved with human beings in terms of Being. Therefore there are no artworks, without the medium of human being.
Dilthey will also agree with Heidegger in this point. The artwork is neither a thing nor a tool, but a expression of spiritual experience. The appreciation (preservation) of artwork is a process of re-experiencing a expressed spirit in the artwork. According to Dilthey, there is a artwork only in the circulation of experience, expression, and understanding. And both “spirit” of Dilthey and “Being” of Heidegger have a analogical mode of being. Summarizing the ontological singularity of the artwork, which we extracted from art-philosophy of Dilthey and Heidegger, the artwork is
1) Between-Being, deviating from the dichotomy (for example, necessity and freedom), which traditional philosophy has made.
2) The artwork can be only in connection with human being.
3) The artwork is not a physical thing, but it has self-creating mode of being, which has been transforming itself in history
IV. What is art?
The human gaze is in its own nature conservative. Habit is the second nature of human being. Human sensibility and thinking apparently obey the law of inertia. That is to say, they are not fond of the new and unfamiliar, but tend to maintain the existing trajectory, for they seek economic efficiency and stability. The unshackling from this conservative tendency of the gaze demands exterior magnetic forces, and art is this explosive charm.
Art seduces the viewer to a new world. It seems infectious.4 This does not mean that an artwork offers one something he/she has never seen. Rather, art enables one to see the concrete that one has been seeing all along anew by transfiguring one’s eye. A work of art guides one to the another world constructed within it, and this is the charm of art; figuratively speaking, like the rabbit-hole in Alice in Wonderland. Art is a black hole that pulls one right through into a “Wonderland”. This is what Heidegger argued about art, that is, “the setting into the works in relation to the truth” (das Ins-Werk-Setzen der Wahrheit)5 . The art in itself is nothing but a non-living thing. Only through Dasein, art can be there as a hole that sucks one into the another world. In this sense, a work of art is similar to viruses which can transfer genes across species boundaries, that is, into the another genetic world (of the sedimentary memory).
If artists are infected with artwork viruses for the first time, viewers are people infected with artwork viruses through the artist. At the same time, viewers are also a host to preserve and maintain the life of viruses. It is not a mere coincidence that Heidegger designated viewer as the preserver (Bewahrende) of art.6 Artwork needs to preserve itself. In this case, the preservation does not only mean the conservation of the physical work, such as a vacuum embalming. Rather it means a preserving in the memory of viewers. This memory lets something be done with an artwork.
Beholders are enthralled with the strong impact of artwork. And this shock pushes one into an unfamiliar world. The shock of an artwork to beholders is fascinating rather than violent. And beholders are immersed in it, as if they are sucked into a black hole. A work of art might be able to change a fixed gaze through the emergence of a fascinating power, so that it could take a look at the abundant Being.
But there must be both an artist and a viewer in order for the work of art to exist. In other words, if there can be the work of art, it must meet both artist and viewer who can receive it or give themselves as a kind of host. The way of being of artwork is like viruses. It needs at least a single human being as host. We can encounter another world through the medium of artwork. If so, the relation between artwork and human being, about which Heidegger argued, could be called a ‘symbiotic’ one, because both host and parasites acquire benefits.
V. The limits of Meme-theory
In the era of natural sciences, Dilthey and Heidegger were philosophers who attempted to reestablish a rigid basis of the Humanities. Dilthey thought that if we have only blunt methods of natural science, it is inevitable to miss the delicate and subtle parts of the “spirit” that permeate artificial products of human history. For example, if someone explains Beethoven’s music in terms of a specific type of frequency combinations or tries to analyze our feeling by measuring levels and distribution of neurotransmitters and their receptors in our body, our enthusiasm for that music will disappear immediately. The world of “spirit (Geist)” is moving according to the law of human being, constituting natural laws actively. This world transcends the limits of natural laws. Dilthey and Heidegger are philosophers who tried to consilience between the humanities and natural sciences as early as a century ago. There were similar achievements in natural sciences too. Among them, Richard Dawkins would be the most famous. He explained many cultural phenomena with terminologies of biology. He is certainly the precursor of our interdisciplinary study. Regrettably, however, there seems to be some limits of his theory.
We need a name for the new replicator, an noun that conveys the idea of a unit of cultural transmission, or a unit of imitation. ‘Mimeme’ comes from a suitable Greek root, but I want a monosyllable that sounds a bit like ‘gene’. I hope my classicist friends will forgive me if I abbreviate mimeme to meme.
Dawkins suggests that it can be used to describe the transmission of culture, like selfreplication of gene. Imitation is important in culture. Imitation is the basic principle of culture-transmission. In this sense, culture is a product of imitation, and imitation is a reproducing mechanism of meme, which is a new self-replicator and a unit of imitation. Through the imitation of meme, human culture is spread horizontally and transmitted vertically. In this context, meme is a substance that is capable of transmitting from one brain to another. According to Dawkins, memes have three peculiar characters like genes; longevity, fecundity, and copying-fidelity.8 Examples of memes are tunes, songs, ideas, catch-phrases, fashions, skill, religion (God) etc. Dawkins seemed to think that Darwinian theory is well compensated for by his meme theory. By the way, he concluded with the unpredictable remark in the chapter to discuss memes.
We are built as gene machines and cultured as meme machines, but we have the power to turn against our creators. We, alone on earth, can rebel against the tyranny of the selfish replicators.9
Seemingly, Dawkins put a distance from scientists who support a genetic determinism. “As an enthusiastic Darwinian, I have been dissatisfied with explanations that my fellowenthusiasts have offered for human behaviour. … I think Darwinism is too big a theory to be confined to the narrow context of the gene.”10 However, Dawkins could not escape completely from such charges by introducing a meme-theory, because we (human) remain still mere ‘machines’ in his view, even though he intensified his efforts to wipe out misunderstanding about himself. He could not explain how we can rebel against selfish replicators, especially against memes, because we are only copying machines, not creative antagonists rebelling against all kinds of copy.
Now it is indispensible to mention briefly, but carefully, the limits of meme-theory because it has many things in common with our (artwork virus) theory. First, it is not an innovative idea, but an old fashioned one. The great idea about art i.e. one of the highest cultural things, has been mimesis (μίμησις) more than 2,500 years ago. And Plato argued already in his book, Symposium, the two ways toward immortality; one is the bodily reproduction by sex, the other is the cultural production by love between souls. Second, his theory failed to secure the artist’s creativity and otherness, because he saw only the imitation of meme. Therefore his idea about replicators forced him unable to reveal mystery of creativity and origin of power rebelling against all kinds of replicators. Finally, he substantialized the principle of culture as a unit of imitation. But we think, art (a core of culture) can not be substantialized at all. If so, it would have been able to be defined. And it would have been lost it’s life (creativity). That is the reason why we noticed the lifestyle (at the boundary of being and non-being) of viruses.
It has already been recognized by some philosophers that the work of art has a specific way of a boundary (between) being, that is to say, it does not neatly belong to anywhere, just like a virus. For example, Plato considered the work of art to be a result of love (Ἔϱως) between sensual and intellectual world.11 And Kant regarded the kingdom of beauty (or aesthetic region) as the boundary zone of the abyss between the theory (necessary law) and practice (freedom) area.12 Both philosophers placed the work of art and beauty in the border that divided the two worlds and at the same time made them link together. In conclusion, our critical argument can be summarized as follows: the work of art does not exist as fixed objects, but as ghostly beings, existing only through the historic encounter with the living human being, like viruses survive among susceptible hosts.
Artworks are lifeless by themselves like viruses, and it only receives life through artists, and hosts. The artists (intermediate hosts) are also carriers, and the audience (definitive hosts) are the infected, who maintain and spread artworks. For instance, Beethoven’s music, which was appreciated only in a small number of European states during his time, receives global attention 180 years after his death. His works have become viral: they have survived time and space (survival), have gone through re-creations (mutation/evolution), and have scattered vastly (reproduction).
Virus is the unsurpassed authority on mutation and reproduction in the biosphere, and the creative works of human beings follow biological tactics of viruses. Thus, the term “artwork virus” is not just a rhetorical metaphor. In the present work, we combine ideas and concepts of two seemingly distant disciplines – philosophy and biology – to suggest that artworks are spiritual and ontological existences, which gain life only through living human beings, just as viruses require living hosts to thrive.
This work was supported by a grant from Yonsei University through the Institute of Convergence Science (ICONS).
Key words: Virus, Art, Boundary, Ghost, Parasitism, Meme, Metaphor
Dawkins, Richard, The Selfish Gene, Oxford University Press, 30th anniversary edition 2006. Dilthey, Wilhelm, “Der Aufbau der geschichtlichen Welt in den Geisteswissenschaften”, Gesammelte Schriften, Bd., Ⅶ, Stuttgart, 1973. ……….,Das Erlebnis und die Dichtung: Lessing․Goethe․Novalis․Hölderlin, 15. Auflage, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen, 1970.
……….,“Die Geistige Welt: Einleitung in die Philosophie des Lebens, zweite Hälfte Abhandlungen zur Poetik, Ethik und Pädagogik”, Gesammelte Schriften, Bd., Ⅵ, Stuttgart, 1978
……….,“Weltanschauungslehre – Abhandlungen zur Philosophie der Philosophie”, Gesammelte Schriften, Bd., Ⅷ, Stuttgart, 1977. Heidegger, M., Holzwege, GA5, Vittorio Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main, 1977. Kant, I., Kritik der Urteilskraft, Philosophische Bibliothek Bd. 39a. hrsg. von Karl Vorländer, Hamburg : Felix Meiner, 1974.
………..,“Erste Einleitung in die Kritik der Urteilskraft,” In: Kants Gesammelte Schriften, Bd.ⅩⅩ, hrsg. von der Königlich Preußischen Academie der Wissenschaften, Berlin : Walter de Gruyter ＆ Co, 1942. Lakoff, George and Johnson, Mark, Metaphors We Live By, University of Chicago Press; 2nd edition, 2008.
Platon, “ION,” in Platon, Bd.Ⅰ, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt, 1977. ………., “Das Gastmahl,” In: Platon, BdⅢ, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt, 1974. Tortora, G. J., Funke, B. R., and Case, C. L., Microbiology: An Introduction (11th ed), Pearson, 2013.
THE JAPANESE ELITE’S PERCEPTION OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES IN THE 18TH CENTURY
KIM, KYOUNG HEE
HANKUK UNIVERSITY OF FOREIGN STUDIES, SOUTH KOREA
Hankuk University of Foreign Studies,
The Japanese Elite’s Perception of Foreign Countries in the 18th Century
The study aims to focus on an 18th century intellectuals, Ueda Akinari, and examine his encounters with Joseon and foreign countries. Furthermore, to examine his recognition on his own country and foreign countries, including Joseon, through the “sun-god debate” that caused between the Motoori Norinaga.
The Japanese Elite’s Perception of Foreign Countries
in the 18th Century
Previous studies on the history of modern literature in Korea and Japan have focused on the history of exchange between Korea and China and the exchange between Japan and China; consequently, the relationship between Joseon and Japan has been neglected. Therefore, it is deemed necessary to examine the trend of international exchanges in East Asia by re-illuminating the influential relationship between Joseon and Japan in the study of early modern Japan. To this end, the present study aims to focus on an 18th century intellectual, Ueda Akinari (1734–1809), and examine his encounters with Joseon and foreign countries. Furthermore, this paper intends to examine his opinions on his own country and foreign countries, including Joseon, through the “sun-god debate” he participated in with Motoori Norinaga (1730–1801).
2. Akinari’s Perception of Joseon
In Ueda Akinari’s life, he encountered tongsinsa (government delegates)from Joseon on two occasions. Both encounters occurred during the during the late Joseon Dynasty, the first with Joseon Tongsinsa in 1748 and the second with a group of Joseon Tongsinsa in 1763. Relevant records of these meetings are documented in “Tandai Shoshinroku”1 (1808), a book of essays Akinari wrote during his later years. The following is a citation from the 61st column:
As there is a Haiku titled “At a year-end party where meeting toujin (Chinese) twice is considered an important occurence,” I have seen Joseon people twice and am not likely to meet them three times in my life. I was about fifteen and thirty. When I called Joseon people toujin (Chinese), Confucian scholars scoldingly corrected me to call them karabito (Joseon people). When I heard that a Joseon tongsinsa group was in Osaka Tsumuramido(the name of the temple in Osaka), I visited them for a short time to have a conversation in writing through the exchange of Chinese poems.
The meaning of the Haiku that Akinari quoted — “At a year-end party where meeting toujin (meaning of Chinese) twice is considered to be an important event” — means that, at a year-end party, people tend to mention the most pleasant and congratulable events that had happened to them during the past year. On one occasion, someone boasted about meeting Joseon tongsinsa (who are hard to meet even once) twice. As a result, this shows that Japanese people during the Edo era apparently regarded meeting tongsinsa as a considerably delightful event. In the following section of the passage, Akinari syas that he also met Joseon tongsinsa twice, which was an important occurrence, and he speculates that he will not have the opportunity to meet them three times in his life. In this Haiku, we can see that Japanese people during his time called Joseon people “toujin” (meaning of Chinese). The next sentence describes what happened when Akinari called Joseon people “toujin;” Confucian scholars rebuked him, instructing him that he should refer to them as “karabito” (meaning of Joseon people). This citation shows that “toujin” was a common term used by Japanese during the Edo era in reference to Joseon people.2
We shall further investigate this use of language by anlayzing what Joseon Tongsinsa recorded. “HaeYuRok” (1719 Joseon Writer’s Travelogue of Japan),3 a journal written by a Jesulguan (a government technical writer) named Shin Yu-Han (1681–1752), who accompanied Tongsinsa Nam Tae-gi ( 1699–1763) and Hong Chi-jung ( 1667–1732) in 1719, holds relevant content.
* Hankuk Univ. of Foreign Studies
1. This book contains Akinari’s free writings concerning his travel experiences, recollections, academic and historical research, his opinions on Confucianism and Buddhism, etc. The cited section is from “Tandai Syosinroku”(Ueda, Akinari. Ueda, Akinari syu. Edited by Nakamura, Yukihiko. 56 vols. Iwanami Syoten, 1959)
2 Nakamura, Yukihiko. 1959 : 289.
Woo Sam-dong said, “That is correct. However, many ethnic groups always call us ‘wajin,’ and this is not what we want.” Then I answered, “It has been so long since your country was named ‘Wa.’ What grievance do you have?” He replied, “According to Chinese history, ‘Wa’ has already been changed to Nippon (Japan), so it is proper for you to instruct your servants to call us Nihonjin (Japanese)” I asked him again, “You call us toujin (Chinese) and write ‘Toujin’s Notebook’ on our notebooks. What is the meaning of this?” Then, Woo Sam-dong replied, “Our government ordered us to refer to you as ‘maroudo (Guest)’ or ‘Chosŏnjin (Joseon people),’ but we call your people toujin because we admire your customs, which are similar to Chinese culture.”4
“Woo Sam-dong” was the Korean name for Ahmenomori Hoohsyu (1668–1755), who, as a government officer in charge of foreign affairs in Tsusima hang (藩), played an active role in the trade between Joseon and Japan. This citation discusses the problematic terms: Joseon people called Japanese “wajin” while Japanese called Joseon people “toujin.” It can be seen that Japan’s feudal government issued an ordinance that Joseon people should be referred to as “maroudo” or “Chosŏnjin.” The conversation between Ahmenomori Hoohsyu and Shin Yu-Han indicates that the term used to refer to Joseon people—“toujin” implies that Japanese people considered Joseon to be a Chinese representative instead of an independent country, and this carrys a disparaging connotation. Although Hoohsyu explained to Shin Yu-Han that it was based on reverence, we must examine this further in order to determine how reliable his remark is. As stated in the 61st column, Akinari’s usage of “toujin” in reference to Joseon people shows that it was based on the general perception of Korean people at that time. Nevertheless, Akinari immediately corrected his terms after he was criticized. Akinari also referred to Joseon people in the 62nd column. We shall examine the citation.
There was a huge riot after Suzuki Denzou, a man from Tsusima Island, had killed a so- and-so “karabito (Joseon people).” (omission) After the investigation was completed, Denzou was beheaded in front of a group of karabito from Shirinasi River. When Denzou was being transported, there were many spectators on the road. Many young women were standing at Nishiguchi (name of the place) in Shinmachi (name of place) and said, “Here comes the ‘Toujinkorosi’ (killer of a Joseon person)!” They peeked inside the wagon and noticed that the man was handsome. They mumbled, “Is that him? How could such a good-looking man kill someone? People in the upper echelons of the feudal government must be cruel.”
3 Published in 1907.
4 Shin Yu-Han. translated by Sung, Nak-hun, 1974. A partial travel log (the main text is from a Korean classics database).
The citation describes the incident where a Dohundo (a non-commissioned officer), Choi Cheon-jong, was murdered by a resident of Tsusima Island, Suzuki Denzou. This occurred at a lodging in Osaka named Nishi Honganji (the name of the temple in Osaka) on April 7th, 1764, when the Dohundo was on his way back to Korea after tongsinsa Cho Eom’s group had completed diplomatic protocols in Edo. From this extract, we can see that, the general public still referred to Joseon people as “toujin” during this period. Even Akinari initially referred to Joseon people as “toujin,” but he changed the term after he was corrected, as described in the 61st column. Although “toujin” was still used among people, Akinari switched to “karabito.” With regard to the titles of Joseon people, it is safe to say that at least Akinari had an objective perception of Joseon, although this must be confirmed through other data sources.
3. Kokugaku Scholars and the Perception of Foreign Countries
Now, with regard to how, as a Kokugaku scholar, Akinari’s perception of Joseon transformed his perception of foreign countries, I would like to examine the “sun-god debate,” in which he participated with Motoori Norinaga. This is because this ideological debate between Akinari and Norinaga concerning kogugaku displays a clear distinction of how the two intellectuals each perceived their own country and the world during the closed Edo era.
The sun-god debate began as follows: Tou Teikan wrote to “Syoukouhatu”(1781), discussing the various problems with the old history of Japan. In response, Norinaga made a harsh criticism by writing “Kenkyoujin” (1785), in which he compared Tou Teikan to a madman and indicated in the title that he would put shackles on him. In reaction to this, Akinari wrote “KenkyojinUedaAkinariHyo (鉗狂人上田秋成評)” (1786), and criticized Norinaga’s view. In return, to refute Akinari’s argument, Norinaga wrote “KenkyojinUedaAkinariHyodoben” (鉗狂人上田秋成評同弁) (1787). In this manner, the kokugaku debate continued.
First of all, I will cite a paragraph on the sun god, a well-known extract from Norinaga’s “Kenkyoujin.”
Originally, the sun god (Amaterasu), who shines her light all over the world, was born in Japan. (omission) As the central country, Japan is the origin of all other countries and the most excellent country; therefore, everything about the god’s age from the moment of creation has been handed down completely and very accurately. Even today, Nihonsyoki (The Chronicles of Japan) and Kojiki (the oldest extant chronicle in Japan) remain.5
Norinaga argued that Japan is the birth country of sun god and is the origin of the world. Based on ancient Japanese mythology, he claimed the superiority of Japan. His sense of pride in Japanese mythology is accentuated in the following sentences:
Although each and every country argues that they have ancient legends, their legends are not accurate. Some countries partially distort while others rashly forge their stories and deceive naive people. (omission) Japan’s legends are not comparable to other legends from foreign countries. Our legends are the representation of truth and no one can fully explain with words the awe present in today’s world and how human beings conform with the descriptions of the god’s age.6
Norinaga disapproved of other countries’ ancient legends, regarding them as being inaccurate and forged while arguing that Japan’s ancient legends were truthful. This shows his strong recognition of his own country. In Norinaga’s argument, there is no relativistic standpoint on ancient legends or mythology; on the contrary, he emphasizes the Japan-centered worldview and view of mythology. In reply to this, Akinari used a world map, which had been introduced to Japan due to the influence of western learning called Rangaku (蘭學), and argued his objective view on Japan, in which the country exists as one part of a vast world. When I looked at a world map, few countries could communicate with Japan in writing. I have not even heard of the names of most countries. Besides, I saw some massive countries on the map. When I looked for Japan on the world map, it was only a small island that resembled a tiny leaf on a huge pond.7
5 Motoori, Norinaga.1971 : 541
6 Ueda, Akinari.1990: 238
Through the world map, Akinari recognized the existence of many unknown countries. With such a world view, he could realize the geographical location of Japan. In response to Norinaga’s claim that Japan is the center of the world and superior to all other countries, Akinari highlighted that Japan is only a small island that resembles a floating leaf in a spacious pond.
Furthermore, Akinari showed a relative standpoint about the mythologies and legends of other countries. India has its own legends, and so does China. He argues that there is no need to be concerned about other countries because they also have their own mythologies and legends.
Through this, we can tell that Akinari was aware of all mythologies and legends from a relative point of view. In comparison to Norinaga’s Japan-centered world view, Akinari’s viewpoint of ancient mythology was far closer to the modern viewpoint. However, in a situation where an ideological debate had already occurred, it would have been challenging for Akinari, with an objective and relative attitude, to continue the debate against Norinaga, who held his claims and argument as his firm belief.
What is the reason that “Ten” (天) has so many different meanings? Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, as well as other ancient documents all use the word in a different context. “Sky,” that which we look up at, is not the only interpretation of the word. In Confucianism, the word can be used for different concepts, such as heavenly blessing (天禄), natural endowment (天資), lifespan (天命), and national disposition (天稟). In Buddhism, it is said that heaven’s emperor (天帝) came down to the human world and listened to Buddha’s preaching. In Kirishitan(Christianity), there is an entity of worship called the Lord of Heaven (天主) who is God, the origin of everything.
7 Ueda, Akinari.1990: 234
On the other hand, there are people who claim that Japan’s Ten (天, Takamagahara) is the center of Japan and even the sun (Amaterasu) and the moon (Tsukuyomi) were born here. This is too absurd for other countries to understand. Therefore, the logic that other countries must worship Japan as their lord is beyond reason.8
As shown in the above citation, through his essays Akinari continued to express his opinion about Norinaga even after the debate with Norinaga was over. Akinari displayed universal and reasonable thinking by explaining the various meanings of “Ten (天)” used in Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, and Christianity. In doing so, he dismissed Norinaga’s claim that Japan is the superior country and all other countries must serve Japan. Nonetheless, the ideological debate between Akinari and Norinaga petered out without a clear ending. Afterwards, Norinaga built an academic base for his Kokugaku ideology and firmly established it in the history of modern ideology.
This paper focused on Ueda Akinari, an intellectual from Osaka active during the Edo era, and examined his experience of Joseon and his perception of foreign countries. As the study question was “how has his experience of Joseon through encounters with Joseon tongsinsa influenced Akinari?,” related literature was reviewed to examine his perception of Joseon.
It appears that Akinari accepted the pervasive image of Tongsinsa of the time and maintained his personal objective viewpoint. In the 61st and 62nd columns in “Tandai Shoshinroku,” we witnessed the change in his terms after he was advised to use “karabito” to refer to Joseon people instead of “toujin(Meaning , such as Chinese or similar),” a common term of the time. Even though people around him still used the term “toujin,” he himself described Joseon people as “karabito.” In order to examine how Akinari’s experience with Joseon led to his perception of foreign countries, this paper also examined the sun-god debate he had with Motoori Norinaga. By comparing Akinari’s argument with Norinaga’s, I could confirm Akinari’s relative and objective perception of his own country and foreign countries. A future task would be to discover where such perceptions were derived from.
8 Ueda, Akinari.1990 : 311-12
Kigoshi, Osamu. (2005). “Akinari’ perception of foreign countries and Norinaga’ perception of foreign countries and”. Edo bungaku
Motoori, Norinaga. (1971). “Kenkyojin”. Motoori, Norinaga zensyu. Edited by Ono, Susumu and others. 13 vols. Iwanami Syoten
Shin, Yu-Han. (1974). HaeYuRok, translated by Sung, Nak-hun. Institute for Translating Korean Classics
Takada, Mamoru. (1964). Ueda, Akinari’ chronological record. Meizendou Syoten
Ueda, Akinari. (1959). “Tandai Syosinroku”. Ueda, Akinari syu. Edited by Nakamura, Yukihiko. 56 vols. Iwanami Syoten
Ueda, Akinari. (1990). Ueda, Akinari Zensyu. Edited by Nakamura, Yukihiko. 7 vols. Tyuo Koronsya
PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS
LADDE, GANGARAM S.
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA
DEPT. OF MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS
Prof. Gangaram S. Ladde
Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics
University of South Florida.
Problem Solving Process
The goal of this work is how to develop and how to foster the problem solving process. Observing the problem solving process as a puzzle solving/game playing process, we make a serious efforts to provide a detailed conceptual procedure of the development, understanding and applying the proposed problem solving process in a systematic and unified way. In this context, the concept of decomposition-aggregation problem solving process is introduced, and its strategy is outlined.
PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS
G. S. Ladde
Department of Mathematics and Statistics
University of South Florida
4202 East Fowler Avenue, CMC 342
Tampa, Florida 33620-5700 USA
ABSTRACT: The goal of this work is how to develop and how to foster the problem solving process. By observing the problem solving process as a puzzle solving/game playing process, we make serious efforts to provide a detailed procedure for the development, understanding and applying the proposed problem solving process in a systematic and unified way. In this context, the concept of decomposition-aggregation problem solving process is introduced. Furthermore the decomposition-aggregation problem solving strategy has been outlined in a systematic way.
1.INTRODUCTION: A junior/senior level undergraduate course, MA-460-Problem Seminar with Applications course in the Department of Mathematics, the State University of New York at Potsdam in 1975  was developed. The author is grateful to Professor Clarence F. Stepenens and his colleagues, eventually, this proposed new course became a regular course in the department. In fact, this course further strengthened the newly developed “Four Year Bachelor’s-Masters Degree Program ” that was initiated by Professor Clarence F. Stephens in the Department of Mathematics, SUNY-Potsdam. The success of program was a topic of discussion during 1980’s and 1990’s at the National level . The course was composed of the following basic components: (i) training for a mathematical problem solving process, (ii) promoting understanding of a mechanism in the problem solving process, (iii) fostering student interests in mathematics, engineering and sciences, (iv) developing mathematical model building and critical thinking abilities, and (v) instilling self-esteem and confidence-“CAN DO”. The problem seminar course was divided into two parts, namely, (1) General Problem Seminar and (2) Special Problem Seminar. The general problem seminar consists of solving a set of problems that are based on the basic course work in mathematics (Calculus, Linear Algebra, Introduction to Abstract Algebra and Advanced Calculus. On the other hand, the special problem seminar part consists of (a) an individual study of a special topic of student interest in mathematics and (b) a topic of interest in any one of the fields in biological, business, chemical, economic, educational, engineering, medical, physical, and social sciences. At the beginning of the semester, each student needed to provide her/his two personal topics interest: one in mathematics and another other than mathematics. Students’ personal interests and desires are important factors for the success and fun/enjoyment in the course. Within the first two weeks, each student makes her/his own choice of topics (one in mathematics and other in other areas of subject matter). Otherwise, based on the students’ interests, instructor (author) recommends the topics for their choice.
2.LECTURES: The instructor (author) gave 9-10 hourly lectures in the class. The
lectures cover the outlines of the following topics [1,3] with detailed illustrations:
1. Problem Solving Processes
2. Description and Mechanism of Problem Solving Processes
3. Process of Developing Maturity (at the student level background)
4. Collecting and Organizing Material
5. Style of Research Project
6. Presentation of Report
About 6-7 classroom contact hours are used to go over the solutions of general problem sets in the class. Most of the time, students presented their solutions under the supervision of the instructor (author). Students are encouraged to take active participating role in the discussions. During the last 6-7 weeks, students begin presenting their special topic research findings. In addition to open unlimited office hours, the remaining contact hours used for “Mathematical Clinic” that is developed by the author in 1975 .
3. MATHEMATICAL CLINIC : The mathematical clinic is a kind of mathematical instructions featuring the problem reading and understanding, identifying the symptoms/difficulties, the critical problem analysis, discussion of a specific problem statements with given pieces of information and goal(s), and solution strategies. Furthermore, it provides facility for mathematical diagnosis and treatment for a student who has difficulty in solving he problem. All students are strongly advised to participate in the mathematical clinic, even though they are not sick of problem(s). The procedure for operating mathematical clinic is as follows: A student is expected to explain (if possible) her/his difficulty in a problem solving process; otherwise, an instructor (author) begins asking question or a series of questions to identify and to understand the level and kind of difficulty in solving the problem. After identifying the level of difficulty, the student will be given a hint to solve that particular level difficulty. He or she is expected to spend some time working on it, and if he/she still has some difficulty, then the instructor will provide another hint and the student will again recommend to work on it. If he/she is not able to complete the solution, then the instructor demonstrates how to use the given hints that were provided earlier to solve the difficulties in the problem solving process.
Two of the most byproducts of the “Introduced Mathematical Clinic” are the processes of problem solving mechanism and problem solving strategies [1,3]. We note that the presented clinic is designed for the conceptual understanding and its applications rather than mechanical drilling and memorizations. Through the individualized efforts and instructions, the role of the instructor is to provide training towards the problem solving process. Moreover, the mathematical clinical approach fulfills at least three most important objectives [1,3,5], namely, (i) to eliminate the fear and anxiety in mathematics, (ii) to develop the model building abilities in the context of the student’s personal interest and hobbies, and (iii) to instill self-esteem and self-confidence-“CAN DO”.
4.RESEARCH PROJECT: The instructor plays a role of gardener nurturing each student at every stage of her/his “research activity”. At every stage, each student is advised to keep notes of read and developed material in both selected topics of their individual choice. We recall that students’ research work begins with the identification of their own personal enjoyments, hobbies, interests and/or skills other than mathematics. Based on students’ choice, each student begins reading the material in the literature (if any) and interacts with the instructor, frequently (with open office hours). Moreover, each student is given a few tips how to read and how to make notes about the reading material. Students are suggested to read certain relevant material in the authors lecture notes , and also search the additional related material on their topics of interests. The reading of newly searched material will be supervised by the instructor to make sure that the work is progressing in satisfactory manner with fun and enjoyment in the selflearning process. The students are constantly encouraged to update readings to the instructor. Depending on the student’s internal drive and the ability of handling challenges that are based on the established Mathematical Clinic in Section 3, each student is encouraged to raise her/hi curiosity about developing a mathematical model of a process (dynamic/static) of her/his selected topic of choice. Under the supervision of the instructor, the validity of the mathematical model is examined. Depending on the extent of the originality of the model (at the student’s background level and abilities), each student encouraged to seek a mathematical solution/representation of the process under her/his study. Each student is challenged to critically analyze the process of model building and solution procedures. The project is guided under the presented “Mathematical Clinic of Section 3” approach initiated by the author.
5.ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES: In this course , students are expected to exhibit the following abilities with respect to the general problem solving process [1,3,5]:
1. Mathematical Reading and Writing Capabilities
2. Understanding Statements of the Problems in the Sets
3. Knowledge and Understanding of the Basic Ideas Encountered in their Course Work
4. Clarity and Completeness of Thoughts
5. Interest in Problem Solving Process
6. Development of Problem Solving Strategies
In particular, under the supervision of the instructor, each student is expected to complete the following tasks regarding the independent study project :
1. to collect the material regarding their own selected independent study topics the special research topics
2. to read and to understand the material, thoroughly
3. to formulate and to attempt to solve special problem (s) based on the study of the special topics
4. to write a report according to the format provided by the instructor
5. to present the report in the class during the last two week period of the semester
6. to submit two typed copies of the report to the instructor as one of the courserequirements
6.CONCLUSIONS: The briefly presented problem solving process is not only applicable to mathematical sciences, but it is also applicable to problem solving process in any level and any discipline, for instance, biological, chemical, business, economic, medical, physical and social sciences. Moreover, it provides a tool for handling problem(s) that arises at any level such as: home, neighborhood, town, county, state, nation and so on. The continuous supervision and assistance are needed to nurture, monitor and foster the initiated gains made by using the problem solving approach: (a) critically analyzing, developing, formulating, reading, reviewing, and writing the material, and constructing problem strategies, (b) collecting and organizing the material, and (c) utilizing developed problem solving strategies. The problem solving process provides a natural scheme for fostering and strengthening one’s (1) style of solving problem(s), (2) building self-confidence, self-esteem, and self-security, and (3) independence. It initiates, fosters, and strengthens individual’s natural abilities and freedom of choice, actions and reactions to the problem(s) in hand. We further note that the questioning process generates curiosity and creativity, and hence it stimulates an interest in learning and in eradicating one’s ignorance about the subject matter under considerations. Moreover, it naturally motivates to undertake an advance degree education.
7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This work is supported by the Mathematical Sciences Division, U. S. Army Research Office, Grant No.: W911NF-15-1-0182.
1. An Introduction to Differential Equations: Deterministic Modeling, Methods and Analysis (with Anil G. Ladde),Volume-1, World Scientific Publishing Company, Hackensack, New Jersey, 2012
2. An Introduction to Differential Equations: Stochastic Modeling, Methods and Analysis (with Anil G. Ladde) Volume-2, World Scientific Publishing Company, Hackensack, New Jersey, 2013.
3. G. S. Ladde, Problem Solving Process, Bull. Marathwada Mathematical Society, Vol. 2 (2001), pp. 90-104.
4. G. S. Ladde, An Introduction to Biomathematics I, State University of New York at Potsdam, New York, Lecture Notes, 1974.
5.. G. S. Ladde, MA-460-Problem Seminar, SUNY-Potsdam, New York, 1975.
6. John A. Poland, A Modern Fairy Tale, The American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 94, No. 3 (1987), pp. 292-295.
7. C. F. Stephens, Four Year Bachelor’s-Masters’ Degree Program in Mathematics, SUNY at Potsdam, New York, 1969.
A STUDY ON BARRIER FREE DWELLING STANDARDS OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN COUNTRIES
LEE, KYOO-IL & ET AL
DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE
SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA.
Prof. Kyoo-il Lee
Prof. Thomas S. Chung
Mr. Seung-min Park
Department of Architecture
Seoul, South Korea.
Dr. Sung-joon Ahn
Department of Convenience Promotion
Korea Disable Peoples Development Institute
Seoul, South Korea.
A Study on Barrier Free Dwelling Standards of Domestic and Foreign Countries
The purpose of this study is to explore similarities and differences between various regulations and guidelines for the disabled housing, especially focusing on adaptability and accessibility, to analyze inaccessible problems in the case of housing, and to provide suggestions for the housing design.
Prof. Kyoo-il Lee Department of Architecture / Sahmyook University, South Korea
Prof. Thomas S. Chung Department of Architecture / Sahmyook University, South Korea
Mr. Seung-min Park Department of Architecture / Sahmyook University, South Korea
Dr. Sung-joon Ahn Department of Convenience Promotion / Korea Disabled Peoples Development Institute
A Study on Barrier Free Dwelling Standards of Domestic and Foreign Countries
As the population of persons with disabilities increases, one of the most important issues we face is enabling such members of our communities to live independently in their own homes. Through comparative analysis of the various regulations and guidelines for accessible housing in five representative countries, with a special focus on adaptability and accessibility issues to and within residences, this study proposes to provide new insight and further suggestions for guidelines in the design of housing for people with disabilities.
For this purpose, the laws, regulations and national standards for barrier-free dwellings of five countries – the United States, Germany, Switzerland, Japan, and Korea – were reviewed and compared for commonalities and differences. Additionally, they were analyzed on the basis of the Korean standard ‘KS P 1509 (Principles and Recommendations for Design Dimensions of Dwellings for Use by the Elderly)’. Based on this KS-based comparative analysis, this study derives and proposes consensus based guidelines and specifications that would provide the basis for future recommendations and suggestions for improving new housing design as well as for remodeling of existing structures to be accessible and convenient for use by persons with disabilities, especially for countries without fully developed and implemented standards such as Korea.
In comparing the rules, guidelines and standards, this study divided the residential dwelling into five area categories: access to dwelling, unit entrance, corridors, bedroom, living room.
2. Overview of laws and systems related to residential environment of the disabled
For comparative analysis of laws and systems related to housing of the disabled, this study analyzed the legislations and systems related to residential environment in countries of the references used to form the value index items of the Barrier-free Living Environment Certification System. The target references were UFAS of the U.S., DIN of Germany, housing design guidelines for longer life in Japan, and Norm of Switzerland. To compare the current status in Korea, this study comparatively analyzed the establishment principles and detailed items of the ‘Act on the Promotion and Guarantee of Access for the Disabled, the Aged, and Pregnant Women to Facilities and Information’ (hereinafter referred to as the ‘APGAD’), and ‘principles and standards for installation measurements of residential facilities for the aged’ (hereinafter referred to as the ‘KS P 1509’).
1) The APGAD in Korea
This Act was enacted in April 1997 and has taken effect since April 1998 as the act on guarantee of persons with disabilities, aged and pregnant women by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, with the aim of contributing to their participation in social activities and improvement of welfare by guaranteeing that all people can safely and conveniently have access to facilities and equipment as well as information in enjoying life without the help of others.
2) KS P 1509 in Korea
This provides the principles and standards for installation measurements of residential facilities so that the aged and the disabled can live conveniently with their families or by themselves in their own residential facilities, enacted as Korean Industrial Standards (KS) on August 29, 2006. By doing so, it presents measurements and standards for 7 design factors of 9 unit spaces to use in architecture, such as unit entrance, stairs, corridors, living room, bedroom, kitchen and dining room, toilet and bathroom, balcony, and utility area.
3) UFAS in the U.S.
Regulations related to barrier-free architecture in the U.S. include the ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act, 1990), which is a comprehensive human rights act that prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities. The U.S. uses this as the implementation guidelines to enforce the UFAS (Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards) that provides a detailed explanation of design guidelines related to housing. Minimum guidelines and requirements of accessible designs are made consistent with the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) established by the four federal regulation designated agencies of the U.S. such as Administration, Department of Defense, Postal Service, and Department of Housing and Urban Development. When these regulations first took effect in 1984, the UFAS was the most extensive standards, and are still adopted as necessary guidelines if when a building is designed, constructed, reconstructed or rented by the funding of the federal government.
4) DIN 18040 in Germany
Germany enacted barrier-free legislations before other advanced welfare nations of Europe in 1974, and accelerated installation of barrier-free facilities by enacting a comprehensive equality act for the disabled called BGG (Behinderten Gleichstellungsgesetz) that covers overall facilities for the disabled at the national level in 2002. In addition, it is managing DIN 18024 Blatt 1, design index for sidewalks and parking lots, and DIN 18024 Teil 2, design index for public facilities with the standards of DIN (Deutsches Institut für Normung). Currently, Germany is integrating and reorganizing regulations related to the disability equality act, a typical example being the management of standards for housing and public facilities with a new integrated standard of DIN 18040. This study focused on analyzing DIN 18040-2, barrier-free housing regulations in Germany, and analyzed both DIN 18025-1 and DIN 18025-2 for only the items with lack of detailed guidelines.
5) Housing design guidelines for longer life in Japan
The housing design guidelines for longer life in Japan was announced as the ‘guidelines for housing where the aged people live’ regarding matters of securing residential stability when the ‘Act on Securing Residential Stability for the Aged’ was enacted in 2001. This defines guidelines for exclusive areas of the housing such as layout of room, indoor level changes, grab bars, corridors and unit entrance width, stairs, area of each space, and ground and wall texture, as well as design guidelines for outdoor areas and common use spaces.
6) Norm in Switzerland
Switzerland enacted the architectural standards for the walking disabled (SNV 521 500) in 1974, and enacted the architectural design guidelines for the disabled called ‘SN 521 500′ in 1988 as the national standard of Switzerland (Schweizer Norm). In houses for the aged, nursing homes, and buildings where wheelchair users and people with severe disabilities live, the guidelines of this standard must be obeyed, and this regulation was revised primarily in 1993. After that, the federal government enacted the disability equality act in 2002, which took effect since January 2004.
3. Comparative analysis of laws and regulations
1) Access path to dwelling
There are currently no separate regulations and systems for access path to dwelling in Korea. However, they are defined by the item of main entrance access path to dwelling in apartments, multiplex housing, multi-household housing, and dormitory of common housing among the categories classified by the APGAD (Act on the Promotion and Guarantee of Access for the Disabled, the Aged, and Pregnant Women to Facilities and Information). Therefore, regulations on items related to access path to dwelling in residential environment for the disabled will be compared based on the standard for detailed regulations of main entrance access path to dwelling in the APGAD.
In the case of access path to dwelling, there are items from ground boundary line to unit entrance that provides safe access by foot. The U.S., Germany, Japan and Switzerland define detailed items such as clear width of passage and gradient, but provide no regulations on multiple installations of access path to dwelling (Table 1). However, the APGAD, U.S. and Japan state that it is necessary to secure at least one access path to dwelling.
All countries are regulating clear width of access path to dwelling, which exceeds 910mm∼1,800mm and thus shows a huge gap from APGAD in Korea. The U.S. grounds the regulation based on passage of the disabled using a wheelchair at the least, regulating the narrowest clear width among the countries compared. Japan regulates it as at least 1,800mm where crossing of users is possible.
In the ground level changes of access path to dwelling, the countries regulate them as 130mm∼300mm, and no country applies the regulation of having no ground level changes at all.
Gradient is the item that regulates the mildness of gradient on the access path to dwelling, and the U.S. and Japan are regulating it as the mildest at less than 1/20, indicating that the regulation is tighter for safety and accessibility than 1/12∼1/18.
Ground texture is smoothly finished with non-slippery materials in all countries except Germany. The U.S. includes color discrimination items on ground texture for people with amblyopia, guaranteeing clearer perception of pedestrian transfer and safety.
As for covering height and openings size, the APGAD regulates it so that there is no height difference and openings on the drain cover installed on the access path to dwelling, which is the highest level of regulation compared to others that allow openings of 100mm∼200mm, indicating that safe movement on access path to dwelling is possible.
Laws and regulations in Korea are only on detailed items based on apartment houses in the APGAD, with no classification items on access path to dwelling in the case of KS P 1509 or Act on Support for Underprivileged Group. The APGAD limits the target facilities to apartment houses, row houses that are at least 10 years old, and multiplex housing, while excluding multi-household housing and detached houses. Thus, there are no regulations or laws on access path to dwelling.
2) Unit entrance
The APGAD regulates the passage of access path to dwelling and entry into the inner space of the unit entrance as recommended items limited to exclusive housing for the disabled.
Among the regulations on unit entrances in Korea, KS P 1509 deals with most detailed items excluding ramp gradient. The door clear width is the widest among other regulations with at least 850mm in Korea (Table 2).
Level changes are 25mm or below in all countries, with the U.S. setting the lowest standard at 13mm or below. In Korea, KS P 1509 and Act on Support for Underprivileged Group is regulating the floor level changes at foyer as 30mm or below.
As for grab bars, most countries except the U.S. and APGAD are applying regulations on grab bars to increase safety and usability in using unit entrances.
In the case of floor texture, KS P 1509 and Act on Support for Underprivileged Group in Korea were the only ones that require the finishing touches to be made in non-slippery materials, so that clutch users and pedestrians accompanied by helpers as well as other users with difficulty in walking alone can use the floor with safety and convenience.
Laws and regulations in Korea and overseas regulate the items toward the outside of the unit entrance, but APGAD, Act on Support for Underprivileged Group, and UFAS showed insufficient items regarding entry indoors. In particular, the ramp gradient of unit entrance had no recommended guidelines at all except for Norm in Switzerland, indicating that there is a need for related items. As for grab bars, APGAD and Act on Support for Underprivileged Group did not include related items except KS P 1509, which suggests the need for improvement.
The regulations of each country on corridors show that detailed regulations on grab bars are provided only in KS P 1509 in Korea, while door type is regulated only by the U.S. and Switzerland (Table 3).
The clear width of corridors must be the minimum width where crossing is possible. Korea’s KS P 1509 and Switzerland are providing the widest level of standard with 1,200mm or above. The U.S. also enables various applications from 900mm to 1,500mm.
As for changes in level of corridors, most countries regulating the application of these level changes as detailed items to provide mobility and prevent negligent accidents are providing regulations so that there are no changes in level of corridors. But it can be seen that the U.S. is not applying any detailed items on changes in level of corridors.
In the case of latch side clearance, Switzerland sets the biggest standard with 600mm or above, followed by the U.S. with 500mm or above, Japan with 300 mm or above, and Germany with 250 mm or above. However, related laws in Korea do not separately regulate any related detailed items.
There are overseas laws and regulations on door type and latch side clearance, but they are nonexistent in Korea. In particular, the APGAD defines no regulation on corridors at all, indicating that there is an urgent need to establish systems related to corridors.
4) Living room
The U.S., Japan and Switzerland except Germany and KS P 1509 have no detailed regulations on classified items of the living room. No matter how small the living room is, it is fundamentally necessary to secure available space with at least 1,400mm×1,400mm where a wheelchair can rotate. Thus, it is made so that the changes in level do not act as obstacles in the living room (Table 4).
Germany has guidelines on minimum area for activity space within the living room as well as according to the number of users limited to wheelchair users, and regulations on window frame height as well. Germany also requires the living room to have at least 6 outlets considering the characteristics of the visually impaired, which is because depending on disability type, those who are not totally blind but have amblyopia or optical angles can distinguish light, and thus need relatively many outlets to separate different sections according to light within the housing.
As for clear space in front of furniture, KS P 1509 and Germany are the only ones regulating the space in front of storage closet at 1,200mm and 1,500mm respectively, so that it is possible to secure space and accessibility according to the location of the storage closet in the living room.
Like corridors, the APGAD has no regulation items regarding this matter, and the Act on Support for Underprivileged Group also has no separate guidelines except for interphones. The U.S. and Germany are the only countries among those compared in this study that provided guidelines on window frame height, which indicates that it is necessary to add related items. In addition, no laws in Korea except KS P 1509 include any details regarding removal of changes in level of the living room.
Among the detailed items of bedroom, changes in level of door and clear width are regulated for mobility, while latch side clearance and bedside space are regulated for accessibility and usability. Clear width of door must be 750mm∼1,100mm, at least the minimum width through which a wheelchair can pass. Switzerland, Germany and KS P 1509 regulate bedside space so that a wheelchair can rotate (1,500mm×1,500mm), or pass (at least 1,200mm) (Table 5).
As for changes in level of door, all countries made it so that entry and exit are possible without level changes or that level changes are 25mm or below. Bedroom size is regulated only by Japan and Switzerland with the minimum area of 9.0㎡.
In Korea, KS P 1509 applies certain regulations more tightly than other regulations overseas, such as window frame height (450mm or below), clear space in front of furniture, emergency bell height, and alarm bell. It is also the only one that regulates window frame height along with Germany (600mm or below). It specifically sets the standards for clear space in front of furniture and emergency bell height as at least two sides of the bed and at least 500 above the bed. Also, for alarm bell, it requires installation of visual audio alarm as well as motion sensor at the same time.
Germany’s DIN regulates all items, while Korea’s KS P 1509 regulates 11 items excluding latch side clearance, bedroom size, and bedside space. However, the APGAD and Act on Support for Underprivileged Group showed no laws or regulations for all items. Therefore, items related to removal of changes in level of door, clear width of door, clear space in front of furniture, shelf reach height, switch height, and alarm bell must be included in evaluation items because they are regulated by KS P 1509 and the U.S., Germany, Japan and Switzerland.
In the analysis for wheelchair access, the existence of widely differing standards, such as heights of outlets and horizontal lengths of bathtub grab bars, shows that it is urgently necessary to prepare new domestic (Korean) national design. It is also urgent that dimensional design standards based on anthropometric dimension, for which currently there are only national guidelines instead of specific dimensions, be developed and implemented. Furthermore, because Korea’s APGAD regulations only require only multi-story apartment buildings and multi-family dwellings with 10 or more units to comply with its laws, most detached single-family dwellings are not accessible nor have accessible facilities. This study thus recommends that the scope of applicability be extended to include a proportional amount of such housing types based on the scope of development in order to address such shortcomings. Additionally, the APGAD regulations currently fail to regulate requirements for corridors, living rooms, kitchens and bedrooms. It is thus also recommended that regulations for these items be formulated and implemented as well.
In cases of widely differing national dimensional standards, adjustments per local anthropometric dimensions as well as local customs and activity patterns to formulate local
regulations and implementation methods is recommended.
This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2015R1C1A1A02037545)
Lee, Ho Sung et al. (2010), A Study on The Barrier Free Dwelling Standards of Domestic and Foreign Countries, The Architectural Institute of Korea.
Kim, In-soon; Lee, Kyoo-il; An, Sung-joon; Lee, Young-hwan, (2011). A Study onImprovement of House Space Considering the Indoor Life Characteristics and Living Typefor Disabled, Korea Institute of the Healthcare Architecture
Yoon, Young Sam et al. (2010). Comparative Analysis on Home and Overseas Acts on Convenience Facilities for Barrier-Free Implementation, Korea Institute of Healthcare Architecture.
ASSESSMENT OF SIMULATION TRAINING FOR HEALTH CARE ADMIN. STUDENTS
HEALTH CARE SERVICES ADMINISTRATION
Prof. Rene McEldowney
Prof. Paula Bobrowski
Health Care Services Administration
Assessment of Simulation Training for Health Care Admin. Students
Our conference proposal highlights the results of Auburn University’s Health Services Administration program’s multi-year assessment of the impact of simulation training on undergraduate pre-internship students. The study employed a two pronged approach of utilizing both qualitative and multi-dimensional quantitative methods to measure the impact of a two day simulation training seminar.
Title: Assessment of Simulation for Training Pre-internship Health Administration Students
Rene McEldowney PhD Health Services Administration 7060 Haley Center, Auburn University, Auburn AL
Paula Bobrowski PhD Health Services Administration 315-B Tichenor Hall, Auburn University, Auburn AL
In 2000, the Institute of Medicine issued an alert pointing out that tens of thousands of patients die unnecessarily every year due to medical mistakes. One of the many tools enlisted to help address the issue of patient safety and to improve communication and decision making was simulation based education and training. Not only has simulation proven to be effective in Aviation’s Crew Resource Management (CRM) training to prevent airplane crashes it is currently being demonstrated as an effective tool in training teams of healthcare professionals and managers.
The benefits of using mannequin simulation training in the education of health care professionals has been recognized for decades. Its use enables students to engage in experiential learning in a safe and secure environment. As Health Care Administration educators we have a tremendous responsibility to our students to prepare them for a positive internship experience. Simulation training in all its incarnations is advocated as an effective tool in developing decision making and communication skills of students without putting patients or the organizations that they intern with at risk. But is there evidence that simulation training has an impact on a student’s decision making and communication skills that lead to a positive internship experience?
Our conference proposal highlights the results of Auburn University’s Health Services Administration program’s multi-year assessment of the impact of simulation training on undergraduate pre-internship students. The study employed a two pronged approach of utilizing both qualitative and multi-dimensional quantitative methods to measure the impact of a two day simulation training seminar given as part of the program’s internship course.
ANALYZING ATTRACTIVENESS OF SPECIFIC LOCATION NAMES OF TOURIST DESTINATION FROM A CLOSED CAPTION TV CORPUS
TOKYO UNIVERSITY OF FOREIGN STUDIES
INSTITUTE OF GLOBAL STUDIES
Dr. Hajime Mochizuki
Dr. Kohji Shibano
Institute of Global Studies
Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
2-1-12 KOYAMA, Nerima
Analyzing Attractiveness of Specific Location Names of Tourist Destination from a Closed Caption TV Corpus
This paper describes some statistical facts about the data in our closed caption TV corpus in order to investigate the attractiveness of location names in the corpus. We will confirm whether target locations are preferred places for use in TV programs on the basis of simple word frequency, co-ocuring words, and words yielded by word2vec. In this paper, we report the result in which we analyze the attractiveness of specific location names of tourist destination from a CCTV corpus.
Analyzing Attractiveness of Specific Location Names of Tourist Destination from a Closed Caption TV Corpus
Hajime Mochizuki* and Kohji Shibano†
This paper describes some statistical facts about the data in our CCTV corpus in order to investigate the attractiveness of location names in the corpus. We will confirm whether target locations are preferred places for use in TV programs on the basis of simple word frequency. We also investigate words co-occurring with location names in the same sentence, which can give us a clearer image of the target place than that gained by looking at simple frequency. For example, Hawaii co-occurs with many words related to local foods, shopping, sightseeing, and so on. These words are strongly related to the attractive image of Hawaii among people who watch TV programs. Similarly, in the case of Rome, many co-occurring words are related to images of world history. In addition to simple word frequency and co-occurring words, we also apply word2vec, one of the most popular natural language processing tools to detect related words, to investigate words related to a target location name as a way of clarifying their attractiveness as places for sightseeing. In this paper, we report the result in which we analyze the attractiveness of specific location names of tourist destination from a closed caption TV corpus.
A corpus is a large, structured set of texts. Corpora have become crucial resources for researches and applications related to natural language, and a variety of studies in corpus-based computational linguistics, knowledge engineering, and language education have been reported in recent years (Flowerdew, 2011; Newman et al., 2011). We have been collecting a large-scale spoken language corpus from closed caption TV (CCTV) data transmitted through digital terrestrial broadcasting since December 2012. The size of our corpus has reached over 116,000 TV programs, over 44 million sentences and over 475 million words as of April 2015. Each TV program is classified to at least one genre according to the classifications provided in the Electric Program Guide (EPG) of which there are 12 genres: “Animation,” “Sport,” “Culture and Documentary,” “Drama,” “News,” “Variety,” “Film,” “Music,” “Hobby and Educational,” “Information and Tabloid Style,” “Welfare,” and “Other.”
One of our research interests, has involved the development of a Japanese language education system that uses examples from real situations extracted from our CCTV corpus. Because TV is a major information medium, familiar in our daily lives, we expect to be able to apply the corpus to language education, offering realistic examples of conversation conducted through e-learning systems (Mochizuki and Shibano, 2014; Mochiuzki and Shibano, 2015a).
* Institute of Global Studies, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
† Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
In addition to using our corpus as learning materials, we are positioned to employ the corpus in a wide variety of research areas as a language and cultural resource. In general, TV is a medium for information on culture, sports, and current events. Thus, we expect that various topics related to events receiving recent attention and to specific locations and subjects can be extracted from the corpus, such that it will act as a rich chronicle of our Japanese culture (Mochizuki and Shibano, 2015b).
Among these various topics, this paper focuses on topics related to specific locations in foreign places that are treated in Japanese TV programs as attractive places for the audience to consider visiting for sightseeing purposes. For example, Hawaii is a famous and popular locations for sightseeing in Japan, and is represented as such in Japanese TV programs. The word Hawaii occurs 10,285 times in our CCTV corpus over 28 months. Table 1 shows the frequency of word Hawaii in our CCTV corpus from January 2013 to April 2015 across 12 genres.
As shown in Table 1, the word Hawaii frequently occurs in four genres “Culture /Documentary (C),” “Information/ Tabloid Style (I),” “News (N),” and “Variety (V)” respectively 1078, 1627, 1289 and 4736 times. Because these four genres will be more related to cultural, informative, and entertaining topics than other genres, we presume that Hawaii will yield attractive and exciting emotions. Therefore, we focus on these four genres.
We believe that location names in the closed caption TV corpus can be analyzed to determine their attractiveness as sightseeing places. In order to select location names, we set three conditions: (1) they are popular destinations for Japanese overseas travelers, (2) they are served by international flights, and (3) their frequency in the CCTV corpus is sufficiently
high to collect adequate data for analysis.
In this paper, we report some statistical facts regarding our CCTV corpus that encouraged us to utilize the corpus to analyze the attractiveness of specific location names for sightseeing. In addition to a list of single words by frequency, we investigate words co-occurring in the same sentence as location names; we also apply word2vec (Mikolov et al., 2013), one of the most popular natural language processing tools, to detect words related to a target location name.
Simple frequencies of location names in the CCTV corpus
In order to select word i, consisting of a city, region or country name, we set the following three conditions.
1. Word i is a very popular destination for Japanese overseas travelers. Under this condition, we selected location names from countries that were the destination of more than 300,000 Japanese travelers in 2011 with reference to statistics for Japanese overseas travelers provided by the Japan Association of Travel Agents (JATA).
2. Word i is listed in a destination list of international flights by Japanese airline companies.
3. The frequency of word i is more than once per 100,000 words in genre V in our CCTV corpus. We prefer to use genre V as opposed to the other three genres because most travel TV programs are classified in genre V by TV stations.
Table 2 shows the result of calculation of simple frequencies of 47 candidate location names in genres V and N. In all, 19 candidates satisfied the above three conditions. As shown in Table 2, frequencies of 18 among 19 candidate location names, all except for Rome are over the threshold in genre N as well as V. These result shows that words that frequently occur in Japanese variety programs tend also to frequently appear in Japanese news programs. Among the 19 location names, 13 are country names; the remaining six are cities or regions (Singapore is placed in this category, although it is also an independent country). In this paper, we take up these six subnational location names: Hawaii, Paris, Rome, New York, London, and Singapore. Figure 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 show monthly frequencies of these six words across genres C, I, N, and V.
These six location names can be classified into two groups according to their frequency in genre N. The first group includes Hawaii, Paris, and Rome, and the latter, New York, London, and Singapore. The members of group two tend to appear in genre N more frequently than in the other genres, in contrast to the members of the first group, which appear most often in genre V. Hawaii, Paris, and Rome, in group one, are major sightseeing destinations, while New York, London, and Singapore, in group two, are also major cities for the world economy. Therefore, we expect that the latter locations will be treated in economic news frequently, accounting for their frequency in N.
Proportion of occurrences is not consistent from genre to genre. As seen in Figure 1, the occurrence of Hawaii in genre V (a purple line) tends to increase every December and every June, while in genre I (an orange line) it tends to increase every January and every July. These statistic results seem intuitively reasonable, since in general Japanese people take relatively short vacations at the same time each year the vast majority, a week around the end/beginning of the year, a week between the end of April and the beginning of May (called “Golden week”), and a summer vacation one or two weeks in August. Therefore, we would programs related to attractive destinations such as Hawaii to be more common in these vacation periods. Indeed, similar tendencies for Paris, Rome, and Singapore are shown for genre V in Figures 2, 3, and 6. Many Japanese people will travel abroad at the same time during these vacation seasons like an annual event. Therefore, attractive oversea locations are featured by many TV programs precedent for Japanese vacation seasons. It can be said that at least Hawaii, Paris, Rome, and Singapore are the most preferred places to be introduced and featured in TV programs.
Words co-occurring with location names in the CCTV corpus
In this section, we provide some statistical facts regarding our corpus, in addition to a simple list of words according to frequency. In particular, we investigate words that co-occur with location names in the same sentence.
Table 3 shows an example list of words co-occurring with the location name, Hawaii in the same sentence. The words in Table 3 can be classified into five groups: Words in the first group are generally found in sentences like “We go to Hawaii for sightseeing” or “We will go traveling to Hawaii.” The second group of sentences relates to shopping or dining events. The third group consists of words related to weddings in Hawaii, considered a prestigious wedding destination among young Japanese women. These three groups of words will strongly relate to the attractive image of Hawaii among people who watch TV programs. The fourth and fifth groups, on the other hand, are different from the first three groups; in that the words in the fourth and fifth groups appear with the greatest frequency in genre N. For example, volcano and tsunami in group four relate not to social or cultural events, but to natural disasters. These words in genre N remind us about terrible natural disasters that happened in past few years.
Table 4 shows words co-occurring with Rome, which show a different tendency from those co-occurring with Hawaii. Because the city of Rome has an extensive ancient history, many of its co-occurring words tend to appear in genre C, whose theme is related to cultures (including history).
Both Hawaii and Rome are very popular and attractive destinations for Japanese people, and both occur in the CCTV corpus frequently.
It is difficult to classify words co-occurring with Paris. This wide variety of co-occurring words may imply that Paris is seen as having diverse cultural and other attractions, which Japanese TV programs wish to convey to their watchers.
Table 6 shows a list of co-occurring words with London. In contrast to Hawaii, the word London has frequently co-occurs with words in the news genre, N: many of these are words related to the 2012 London Olympic Games and Paralympics, such as Olympics, Paralympics, athlete, and games. In this investigation, we find only two kinds of words frequently co-occurring with London that are in genre V: go to and taxi. This seems to indicate that the attractiveness of London as a sightseeing destination is lower than that of Hawaii, at least as represented in our CCTV corpus.
Closest words to the location names in the CCTV corpus
Here we apply word2vec (Mikolov et al., 2013), one of the most popular natural language processing tools, to find the closest words for user-given words in the corpus.
Table 7 shows the closest words to six location names, Hawaii, Paris, Rome, New York, London, and Singapore, respectively. Numeric values in brackets mean cosine distance as calculated by the “distance” tool of word2vec.
As shown in Table 7, a large portion of the closest words are world-famous location names, across both genres N and V. However, each location has a different group of closest words, indicating the complexity and distinctiveness of their images. For example, the closest words to Hawaii include the names of individual Hawaiian islands and other resort locations, such are Las Vegas, Macau, Okinawa and Phuket. The closest words to Rome include many places with a similarly ancient history, such as Egypt, Greece, Acropolis, and Milano. In genre N, we can observe words related to recent news about the target locations. For example, most words related to London are associated with the Olympics and Paralympics, at least in our CCTV corpus. Singapore is related to Lee Kuan Yew, the first prime minister of Singapore, in genre N. At least from the results of this paper, it seems that word2vec is not suitable for analyzing the attractiveness of a target location, but does work for finding other locations that have similar images.
In this paper, we have reported some statistical facts regarding our CCTV corpus in order to investigate the attractiveness of location names in the corpus. We counted simple frequencies of 47 location names, and selected six of these that were not country names: Hawaii, Paris, Rome, New York, London, and Singapore. From simple word frequency results, we could confirm that at least Hawaii, Paris, Rome, and Singapore are viewed as preferred places for feature status on TV programs.
In addition, we investigated words co-occurring with these six location names in the same sentence. Co-occurring words were able to give a clearer image of the target places as compared with simple frequency. For example, in the case of Hawaii, there were many co-occurring words about foods, shopping, sightseeing and so on. That is, they were all strongly related to the attractive image of Hawaii among people who watch Japanese TV programs. Similarly, in the case of Rome, many co-occurring words were related to images of world history.
Finally, we also applied word2vec, one of the most popular natural language processing tools, to detect related words for a given target location name. At least in our results, it seemed that word2vec was not suitable for analyzing the attractiveness of a target location, but did work finding other locations with similar images.
This research was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 26240051 and15H02794.
Mochizuki, H. & Shibano, K. (2014). Building Very Large Corpus Containing Useful Rich Materials for Language Learning from Closed Caption TV. World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education, Volume 2014, No. 1, (pp. 1381-1389). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), New Orleans.
Mochizuki, H. & Shibano, K. (2015a). Development of a Closed Caption TV Corpus Retrieval System to Seek Video Scenes Containing Useful Expressions for Language Learning. The EdMedia World Conference on Educational Media and Technology, (to appear, nine pages). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Montreal, Canada.
Mochizuki, H. & Shibano, K. (2015b). Detecting Topics Popular in the Recent Past from a Closed Caption TV Corpus as a Categorized Chronicle data, the 7th International Joint Conference on Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management (KMIS) 2015, to appear, Lisbon, Portugal.
Flowerdew, L. (2011). Corpora and Language Education. Palgrave Macmillan.
Newman, J., Baayen, H. & Rice, S. (2011). Corpus-based Studies in Language Use, Language Learning, and Language Documentation. (Language and Computers Studies in Practical Linguistics), Rodopi.
Mikolov, T., Chen, K., Corrado, G., & Dean, J. (2013). Efficient Estimation of Word Representations in Vector Space. In Proceedings of Workshop at International Conference on Learning Representation (ICLR) 2013, Scottsdale, AZ.
APPLICATION OF DOUBLE-LOOP LEARNING WITH LEADERS IN HIGHER EDUCATION
THE SCHOLASTIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE (SRI) MICHAEL-CHADWELL, SHARON
Dr. Jeanie Murphy
Founder, J. Murphy & Associates and Assistant Vice President
The Scholastic Research Institute (SRI).
Dr. Sharon Michael-Chadwell Capella University.
Application of Double-Loop Learning With Leaders in Higher Education
The current qualitative research study examines the decision-making process of leaders in higher education to identify difficulties of measuring the quality of decision making, examines perceptions of higher education leaders on how poor decision making arises and how poor decision making might be remedied.
APPLICATION OF DOUBLE-LOOP LEARNING WITH LEADERS IN HIGHER EDUCATION
Jeanie Murphy, DBA, Founder, J. Murphy & Associates and Assistant Vice President, The Scholastic Research Institute (SRI)
Sharon Michael-Chadwell, Founder and President, Keen Notes Consultancy and Assistant Professor at Capella University
To improve decision making, engagement is a critical component that promotes organizational learning; ineffective decision-making processes continue to result in challenges, increased time and costs, and stressors for the most stakeholders. The current qualitative research study examines the perceptions of leaders in higher education regarding the decision-making processes, the measures used to qualify quality decision making, and solutions to approach ineffective decision-making processes. The research also assesses behaviors and practices of leaders in higher education institutions to determine if organizational learning, preferably double-loop learning, occurs during the decision-making process. Improvements in the decision-making process may be a derivative of constructive feedback, self-reflection, and engagements, which furthermore stimulate organizational learning. Findings showed that the acceptance and application of the double-loop learning concept will require a change in the behaviors, protocols, and measures associated with the decision-making process deployed within higher education systems.
Key words: Decision making, higher education, leadership, organizational learning, double-loop learning
Competition, limited resources, increased diversity, and generational changes in the workplace are requiring leaders to reexamine current leadership practices and question whether the workplace is conducive to improved learning and productivity. Within institutions of higher learning, apparent challenges for education leaders include student and faculty retention, technological advancements, and the influence of federal- and state level-policies (American Association of State Colleges and Universities [AASCU]; 2014); Economist Intelligence Unit [EIU]; 2008). Thomas (2014) noted, the right first time agenda has been advanced as a solution to organizational problems. To improve decision making, Thomas asserted engagement is a critical component, which promotes organizational learning.
Argyris and Schön (1974, 1978) asserted organizational stakeholders who do not question goals, values, plans, and rules are maintaining a state of operationalization or single-loop learning rather than double-loop learning in which organizational members are critically scrutinizing the status quo. In the field of higher education, discussions related to student retention have begun to promote political and scholastic discussions concerning various practices that are impeding the success of students and acquiring professors (Harnisch, 2012; Nelson- Porter, 2013). The purpose of this paper is to present the difference between Argyris and Schön’s concept of single- versus double-loop learning and share how the concepts have been applied to the decision-making processes performed by leaders in higher education systems who are tasked with improving student and faculty learning and outcomes.
Background of the Problem
As institutions of higher learning continue to operate in an environment whereby leaders must face the issues related to a demographic change that influences enrollment and instructional practices, opportunities are present to assess how to address what appears to be a disruption in the system especially when considering the effects on funding and the budget (Wilcox & Ebbs, 1992; Zumeta, 2009; 2012). Leaders governing institutions of higher education continue to face concerns related to quality assurance and governance, while trying to remain autonomous (Dill, 2007; Stowell, 2004). On one hand, the need is to examine policies that exist to widen access and participation for a more diverse group learners and continuing the need of maintaining academic standards. In contrast, Sowell (2004) concluded a need exists to question assumptions regarding the role of higher education and the systems constituting its existence and significance.
When the practice is to not question goals, values, plans, and rules, Argyris and Schön (1978, 1974) defined this type of culture as resulting from single-loop learning versus one in which variables and factors are subjected to critical scrutiny or a double-loop learning framework. Examining the problem within the context of single- versus double-loop learning prompts an awareness that higher education leaders are maintaining an environment in which the question, Are the right things happening? has not transforms to Are collective supported efforts happening for the right reasons? (Yeo, 2007). Ineffective decision making results in “more appeals and challenges, increased costs and time, and stress for the individuals involved. Over recent years, the ‘right first time’ agenda has been advanced as a solution to this problem” (Thomas, 2014). To improve the experiences of faculty members and learners, higher educational leaders must reexamine how to improve administrative efficiencies while looking to gain competitive advantage over rivals (Dunnion & O’Dovovan, 2012).
The current qualitative research study examines how double-loop learning applied during the decision-making process could assist leaders in higher education with the decision-making protocols, measures used to qualify quality decision making, and solutions to approach ineffective decision-making processes. To improve decision making, engagement is a critical component, which can promote organizational learning; ineffective decision-making processes continue to result in challenges, appeals, increased time and costs, and stressors for the most stakeholders (Thomas, 2014). The current research also examines behaviors of leaders in higher education institutions to assess organizational learning, preferably if double-loop learning is present during the process. The following research question guided the development of the study: When applying double- versus single-loop learning, how have decision-making processes and protocols, aimed to approach challenges faced in higher education institutions, improved the behaviors and culture of the institution and retention of faculty and learners?
Literature Review: Challenges Impacting Higher Education
Issues and trends in higher education arena continue to be published by organizations such as Hanover Research [HR] (2013), the Alumni Association Network (AAN), New Media Consortium [NMC] (2013), and AASCU (2014) derived from customize research on challenges impacting high educational systems. The trends of interest in higher education include and are not limited to the number and types of program offerings, the cost of the program offerings, and platform (HR, 2013). The 2013 Hanover Report furthermore revealed interests for research for higher education institutions are on data concerning the impact of institutions, strategies and strategic planning. Other areas of interests for customized research, which resulted in higher education institutions collaborating with independent consulting groups, are data on funding solutions resulting from award-winning multimillion dollar grant writing, innovations for improving institutional brand awareness and perceptions, and training program offered within institutions (HR, 2013).
Dr. Brenda Nelson-Porter (personal communication, March 14, 2015), the CEO and Founder of Brigette’s Technology Consulting and Research Firm established the Alumni Association Network, known as AAN, in 2007 and has discovered from a virtual network of scholars interesting revelations regarding the world of higher education, specifically academics. As the virtual network is aimed to increase awareness about academic issues occurring in higher educational institutions from research, social media platforms, and conversations; interestingly, personal experiences from scholars across the country provide unique perspectives on challenges faced in higher education.
Challenges identified within higher education in which graduate students face include the lack of knowledge about research and the importance of research and limited publishing and research opportunities upon graduation, especially for online graduates (Nelson-Porter, 2012; Nelson-Porter & Grey, 2009). Issues within higher education affecting stakeholders might consist of curriculums, which may not mimic the current changing workforce.
Additionally, there may be unethical grading practices (e.g., assigning an Incomplete grade when not warranted, failure to deduct points on writing assignments when writing standards are not followed, failure to assigning adjunct professors classes for refusing to increase low grades of prior learners), and retention of learners, acquiring professors, and members of the academic affairs. Retention involves focusing on nonmilitary learners who are not eligible for the GI Bill, acquiring professors who desire to follow writing and research standards, and members of the academic affairs division who are serving as human mediators between the policies and complaints (Harnisch, 2012). The global network of scholars aims to change existing practices and protocols associated with decision-making processes influencing higher education industries, while ensuring learners and graduates receive quality care and opportunities, of which have been affected by hidden societies aimed to deter a certain scholar population from effectively reaching their full potential to make a presence in the global societies, especially in the academic and research sectors, to include the legal, technical, and natural healthcare arenas.
Findings in the 2013 Horizon Report confirmed the aforementioned challenges affect faculty training, processes, assignments, and practices in regard to determining which teaching or learning platforms becomes available, the modalities of learning environments in which instructions are practiced, and personalization of learning environments supported by emerging technologies (NMC, 2013). The report presented six themes:
1. Training for faculty requires a mastery of digital technology.
2. An increase of technology for research and scholarship outperform existing assessment measures.
3. Existing processes limit the advancement of technology in the education arena.
4. The necessity for adaptive learning technology is unsupported by current technology or teaching and or practices.
5. Many academicians fail to demonstrate competency of new technologies in facilitation and assessment of learning or in the positioning of personal explorations.
6. The traditional model of higher education continues to diminish confirmable by the amount of competitors in the market.
A review of literature furthermore revealed significant challenges for higher education directly associated with technology. Technology is a driving force, which supports innovation and globalization, and often considered as a disruptive innovation (EIU, 2008) which can improve and or impede processes. Considering processes, higher education leaders determine how, when, and at what rate technology should be implemented into existing processes, implemented into teaching practices, and learning platforms. Based on survey findings derived by the representatives of EIU (2008), higher education professionals and corporate professionals agree, technology, and advancing technology are critical factors for corporate and academic partnerships. Corporate leaders have the expectation of academic institutions using and teaching on cutting edged technological platforms; academic institutions require technology to provide new teaching and learning platforms. The relationship could be reciprocal although there can be unforeseen challenges, such as operational challenges from both entities preventing reciprocity (EIU, 2008).
Higher education and its accountability continues to be a priority for lawmakers, who make federal and state statutes on the governance of higher educational institutions (AASCU, 2014). At the federal level, legislation controls eligibility for funding for various institutions and grants. The reactivation of the Higher Education Act (HEA) of 1965 was a strategy to increase access to higher education institutions and lower costs of tuition directly, impacts decisions derived by leaders and the process used to determine how leaders of educational institutions will adhere to the legislation (AASCU, 2014).
At the state level, higher education policies affect the decision-making processes of how agendas are settled when determining governance and funding (AASCU, 2014). The politics at the state levels often consider precedents from other states. The rulings affect enforcement of policies and influence how future policies proposals are created and contributors to State Relations and Policy Analysis Teams presented several issues at the state level. The issues were harnessing higher education to address state economic goals, (b) agreements linking state funding and tuition policy, (c) allocation of state higher education appropriations, (d) state educational attainment and college completion goals, (e) vocational and technical education, (f) college readiness; (e) STEM related initiatives, (g) state capital outlay and deferred maintenance funding, (h) guns on campus, and (i) immigration (AACSU, 2014). Nelson-Porter (2009) suggested by promoting independent dissertation consultants (IDCs), graduate students may make better decisions on appropriate research topics and research methods that reflect current issues, trends, and happenings in the private and public sectors, which may lead an increase retention in higher educational systems and to a quality workforce.
Framework: Single- Versus Double-Loop Learning
In understanding the behaviors adopted by the workforce, researchers have categorized differences in behaviors by various theories to show how solutions emerge to combat challenges. The espoused theory posits managers believe that collaborative acts solve problems within a work unit; the theory-in-use, on the other hand, posits that the managers’ beliefs are based on their mental model in that authoritative behaviors derive the decision-making processes and performances (Argyris & Schön, 1978, 1974; Fraser, 2015). The mental maps individuals develop are situational, which may involve planning, implementing, and reviewing actions (Argyris & Schön, 1974). Unfortunately, Argyris and Schön asserted most individuals do not understand the constructs of their mental maps and why certain behaviors emerge in various situations.
Factors governing behaviors could be contingent on three dimensions: governing variables, action strategies, and consequences (Argyris & Schön, 1974). Governing variables are the behaviors that modulate actions of individuals. Action strategies are the constrained actions displayed by individuals. Collaboratively, the governing variables and action strategies can result in expected or unexpected compatible/conflicting consequences whereby the latter could be observed within the context of single- and double-loop learning (Argyris & Schön, 1974).
Single-loop learning occurs as a result of changes in behaviors or actions derive from unexpected results from original goals or new tactics, which are based on experiences; whereas, double-loop learning occurs as a result questioning and applying the decisions that resulted from incorporating the three dimensions or better yet, examining alternative solutions and their appropriateness to the desired outcome (see Figure 1) (AFS, 015; Argyris & Schön, 1974; Greenwood, 1998).
Double-loop learning from an organizational learning perspective involves the single- loop process of effective and efficient solution identification followed by deep analysis for continuous process improvement in the decision-making process (Kelly & Lauderdale, 1999). Researchers postulated examples of challenges with the double-loop learning process such as with decisions made by lawmakers and leaders in academic institutions by which decisions are not transparent, based on bias, and or discretionary influence is evident in political arenas of business (Kelly & Lauderdale, 1999). One of the major challenges is the adoption and learning organizational leaders experience to become increasingly aware of critical factors identifiable with traits of an organization in which learning occurs (Kelly & Lauderdale, 1999).
A learning culture reflects the concept of single-loop or double-loop learning. The existence of three cultures has been found to be entrenched in all organizations (Schein, 1996):
1. Operator culture: An internal culture derived based on its operational success.
2. Engineering culture: Designers and technocrats driving core technologies.
3. Executive culture: Executive management team to include the CEO and junior executives.
Schein (1996) concluded a misalignment could emerge amongst subcultures and the outcome can compromise the success of organizational learning.
The learning environment reflects on organizational values and norms as well as aligns with espoused behaviors that possibly helps render a more meaningful experience (Greenwood, 1998). Within the context of systems thinking, one of the basic tenets of the framework is applicable: “parts and wholes snapshots rethought with processes of learning and coevolving over time” (Ing, 2013, p. 528). Validating the espoused theory, structures or members within systems interact to produce results, outcome, and effects, reaffirming the interconnectedness of behaviors of members or processes and components of systems that influence outcomes.
Validating that behaviors influence the culture of higher education institutions, the current research study aims to show the distinction between outcomes of single- versus those of a double-loop learning environment. Double-loop learning supports the raising of questions and pursuing solutions designed to improve single-loop learning solutions (Freeman & Knight, 2011). Single-loop learning plays a role in cultural development when stakeholders simply follow directions, and double-loop learning plays a role in cultural progress when all major stakeholders acquire the ability to assess issues and solutions and form opinions, questions, and measures to approach these issues faced by leaders in higher education institutions. The application of knowledge based on the exploration of new learning opportunities is more prevalent within a double-loop learning environment (AFS, 2015; Freeman & Knight, 2011).
Descriptive Analysis and Emergent Themes
For the current qualitative research study, data was collected from 21 higher education leaders using SurveyMonkey with the assistance of Brigette’s Technology Consulting and Research Firm. Over the course of 2 weeks, leaders from various academic institutions were invited to participate. The primary means of solicitation for participation was a purposive sampling using electronic communications such as e-mails and instant messaging to potential candidates through social media platforms. The solicitation was also a combination of snowballing as participants, who were solicited, were asked to refer a colleague. In addition to demographic questions, the following questions were part of the data collection protocol, which reflect key terms (assessment, measures) derived from the concept of double-loop learning offered by Freeman & Knight (2011):
1. What are the human challenges impacting your decisions in your current role?
2. What are the technical challenges impacting your decisions in your current role?3. Do you solicit feedback from others on your decisions? Why?
4. When obtaining feedback from individuals who are impacted by your decision- making process, do you and your management team self-reflect on the decision- making? Explain.
5. What protocols are made to improve your decision-making processes?
6. How do you evaluate any changes made to the original decision-making processes after implementing changes based on the effects or outcome of your decisions?
7. What recommendations would you offer to higher education stakeholders to strengthen the assessment of decision outcomes?
The participants were aware of their rights in relation to participating in the study, knowing participation was voluntary. Of the 21 leaders, three only responded to the demographic questions, while 18 responded to the majority of the questions. Tables 1 through 3 show the demographic data of the higher education leaders (HELs) who completed the questionnaire. Although there is no way of verifying who responded, the analysis was conducted based on the information provided through SurveyMonkey.
As shown in Table 1, more female leaders participated in the research study. Tables 2 and 3 show that the age of these leaders in higher education ranges from 26-75, and most had 10 or more years of experience. Results may suggest that women may be more open to sharing information about challenges faced in higher education institutions or leaders age 26 or higher have ample amount of experience to discuss the most sufficient issues impacting the operation of academic institution and progression of academic stakeholders.
Human Challenges Impacting Decisions Made in Higher Education Systems
Nineteen leaders (referred to as HEL) provided diverse responses on human challenges impacting their decisions; these challenges derive from the management team, co-workers, juniors, students, and external constituents. The human challenges of the management team, which consists of administrators or HELs, was reported as making poor decisions as well as requesting immediate actions, which influence other leaders’ ability to accomplish goals. HEL7 stated, “Relying on others to provide prompt and accurate responses and feedback relative to processes and procedures that are not clearly defined is a significant human challenge. Learning how to best deal with the various management and personal styles of communication amongst those you constantly work with is another challenge.” HEL2 and HEL5 alluded leaders do not understand the nature of the problem to satisfactorily derive a solution because a distance exist between the stakeholders.
Because of massive internal changes and the absence of understanding the level of authority leaders have to make decisions, motivation becomes an issue. In addition to the administration, a lack of student preparation and training exists for the ‘juniors.’ HEL6 stated, the “amount of time I need to spend with my students and understanding their learning outcome” is a human challenge. Thus, balancing tasks and life becomes a challenge. HEL3 and HEL10 added the changes in the competitive markets and adapting to a rapidly changing worker profile and skills requirements and cultural barriers and language influence the decisions. When a lack of quality human resources and retention of faculty exists to approach these challenges, a certain level of professionalism and customer care may deteriorate.
Technical Challenges Impacting Decisions in Higher Education Systems
Three of 18 leaders, who responded to this question, did not identify any technical challenges that influenced decisions in higher education. Identifying the overuse of technology and the management of data as challenges were surprising. Twelve of the leaders implied that limited access to technical resources was a primary challenge in the decision-making process.
Several educational leaders expressed difficulties in keeping abreast of current, changing, and evolving technologies, to include the evolution and access to software:
1. HEL14 stated, “using new technologies appropriately and fully understanding their benefits” are technical challenges which impact decisions revolving around academic performances.”
2. HEL9 shared, “Technical challenges include not having access to software or resources that may be used in various facets of higher learning. Hence, it is challenging to branch out and use other technical aspects if the content will not be supported or utilized due to access.”
3. HEL6 expressed, “Software for everyday functions seems to be unavailable frequently due to technical issues and/or computers are just plain slow. Not being able to have administrative rights on my workstation. Having to rely on work orders being submitted and then waiting on response, often days or sometimes more than a week.”
Although specific software packages or Internet browsers were not mentioned, the implication from the responses of the higher education leaders suggests a certain level of
frustration to complete daily tasks. Remote capabilities, Internet access, and communication using computers are essential components of the decision-making processes. Proper funding, however, as hinted by HEL4, may be a primary reason institution investors are not able to fund technological changes associated with software advancements and points of access.
Solicitation of Feedback About Decisions
Two of the 18 leaders do not solicit feedback about the decisions made related to academic affairs. Fifteen leaders indicated solicitation of feedback is a form of best practices to gain buy-in from others, (b) broaden their knowledge base, (c) make right decisions, and (d) gain sound results. Respective to the solicitation of feedback, team participation emerges as a theme as new perspectives and ideas to include interaction from administrators, different experiences are present. HEL6 explained:
Often reports and other important documents require input from the members of my team. I rely on them to provide timely and accurate feedback. Whenever decisions affect others, I reach out to them to get their input to help them understand the process and gain knowledge related to the situation.
As situations vary, the need for feedback to enhance or complement the knowledge of leaders is necessary. HEL15 ensures other perspectives are considered before making final decisions. HEL13 also proclaimed feedback as a means of monitoring decision making to ensure directions are correct.
Self-Reflection of Decision-Making Processes
Fifteen leaders self-reflected following the making of a decision. The purpose of self- reflection used during the decision-making process has been to enhance collective collaboration and transparency, save time and money in the future, empower impacted individuals, gain understanding about the ramifications of final decisions, and learning from
lessons. HEL5 stated self-reflection voids “re-creating the wheel.” HEL13 related self-reflection to monitoring whereby both strategies aim to prevent long periods of wrong direction; however, ensures knowledge from experience. HEL3 used the plus/delta method of reflecting for continuous improvement. Two of the 15 leaders implied the process is limited and might be practiced more to obtain better decision-making results.
While self-reflection can commence prior to or following the decision making, the process can take place in the form of team participation, similar to obtaining group feedback. HEL9 implied self-reflection prior to decision making increases confidence about the decisions as decisions are made based on the level of impact. HEL9 shared, “The team will more so re-cap (if needed) to see if we need to follow up on anything and discuss the delivery of the message.”
Although HEL16 stated management does not engage in the process, HEL18 shared through team participation, important decisions are discussed extensively. HEL2 asked for “feedback from all stakeholders to facilitate improvement on the learning community.” HEL12 stated that different perspectives often complete a picture. Regular team meetings or group meetings, whereby self-reflection commences according to HEL6, helps each member with understanding the implications and how to work on improvements for the future.
Protocols to Improve Decision-Making Processes
Five leaders did not state if a protocol was used to improve their decision-making process. Formal protocols mentioned include using the plus/delta method, referring to company policies, engaging in interactive sessions, and adopting varies strategies. HEL3 uses 80, the decision-making matrix, and key metrics whereby predictions based on the metrics are used to help change undesired outcomes. HEL5 stated many written processes and procedures ensure the decision-making process is clear and straightforward. When no processes and
procedures are present, then the decision making becomes more difficult. Thus, personal ethics, as indicated by HEL11, could be an alternate.
In addition to listening to advice like HEL15’s, other educational leaders gather feedback and pertinent information prior to making a decision from internal stakeholders and experts, such as senior colleagues, as well as external stakeholders and experts. HEL13, however, believes assessments or evaluations are applicable to gain knowledge about situations. HEL8 stated, evaluating prior decisions and how individuals respond, helps with considering future decisions and effective ways to communicate and execute during the decision-making process.
Engaging in interaction sessions also helps stimulate creativity. HEL4 looks for creative solutions to approach problems and strategies to stimulate productivity, quality, and accountability. HEL12 identifies problems or opportunities, alternative solutions, pros and cons for proposed solutions, and makes decisions based on the weight of the pros and cons.
Evaluation of Changes Implemented to Original Decision-Making Processes
When evaluating the changes implemented to the original decision-making processes, 2 of the 18 leaders were unsure how the question was applicable. Nine leaders implied the evaluation of data obtained by self-reflection and from feedback of peers and other stakeholders, are used to track decisions, note ramifications, assess student outcomes, check expected results, and monitor desired outcomes. Critical feedback, survey results, comparative analysis, and observation help with evaluating how the process might differ in the future based on factors emerged during the processes. HEL13 noted, “The evaluation process is conducted using the proper tools, statistical analysis, exception reports, Pareto charts, and status reports.” HEL2 explained, “As changes are implemented, we constantly assess and make changes as needed from data gathered.” However, HEL4 stated, “Changing the equation is windbreak throw[ing] a curse.” Because change leads to movement, HEL14 asked what directions did decisions involve relationships, and what behavioral changes emerged? HEL1 asked, was there compliance with the decision? HEL9 concluded, answering, “Some decisions, however, are made due to a process or policy in place which you cannot change.” Thus, when policies restrict changes, noting how deductive and inductive reasoning plays a role in decision making as HEL5 contends may be an effective change agent that senior leaders can can use to reflect on to override current policies.
Recommendations by HELs to Higher Education Stakeholders
As potential change agents, the 18 HELs provided recommendations to higher education stakeholders to strengthen the assessment of decision outcomes. HEL2 believes decisions need to be approached and altered at the learner level, based upon needs of the community. Four leaders concluded that identifying measurable outcomes, such as student outcomes, and understanding the intended outcome of the decision are appropriate assessments of decision outcomes. Outcomes have derived from careful on-hands study and not secondary or tertiary data, common assessments, and evaluations of the resulting data. HEL13 stated, “The planning, implementation, monitoring, and correction, if needed, is always the best assessment direction.”
Three leaders focused on the thinking process. HEL15 stated that stakeholders should “consider implications of decisions before implementing them and monitor responses to determine if changes need to be made.” HEL5 recommends critical thinking as a means to think smarter. HEL4 asks, “How can we think about Prada problems to have solutions that make a huge difference?” The process of interactions with peers and team members enables stakeholders to self-reflect, seek advice, become knowledgeable of resources, be receptive to others’ knowledge, inspire collaboration among stakeholders, engage more stakeholders vertically and horizontally, and allow the decision makers to have more of a voice in decisions which directly impact them or their staff versus executing decisions which have already been made. The recommendations suggested by HEL6 include meeting regularly, as well as ensuring and adhering to open communication absent of pressure. Communication with senior leaders and other stakeholders should involve respect and honoring opinions and feedback without getting defensive or personalizing the activity.
Although HEL14 believes awareness and understanding are important for all stakeholders involved in the processes, “some things should remain confidential.” For example, resources and staffing should be clearly understood by all. The process should be conducted in an efficient manner to avoid disclosing pertinent information. HEL10, however, believes stakeholders should not seek followers who will agree with everything. “This could hurt the organization and set it up for failure.”
Implication of Double-Loop Learning and Future Research Suggestions
Future researchers should consider exploring leadership styles, to include visionary mentorship, that are effective for implementing and deploying double-loop learning. Not implementing actions offered by Freeman and Knight (2011) could maintain an organizational learning disability (Gorman, 2004), thereby sustaining a single-loop learning culture. Based on the findings from the current study, the application of double-loop learning could occur if higher education leaders implement the following recommendations:
1. Reexamine current leadership practices and question if the workplace is conducive to improved learning and productivity;
2. Examine consequences of decisions from a wider perspective;
3. Question goals, values, plans, and rules and carefully scrutinize the status quo; and
4. Re-evaluate and reframe goals, values, and beliefs supporting complex thinking and engagement.
Visionary mentoring, coined by Dr. Brenda Nelson-Porter in 2008, involves establishing close rapport with mentoring protégés to ensure protégés have appropriate research and accurate data and utilize adequate methods, instruments, and technologies to conduct quality research, which can be applied to qualifying the foundation of decision-making processes and accurate reporting. Visionary mentoring can foster environments supportive of organizational learning as a platform to transform organizational cultures grounded on continuous improvement and supported through research (Nelson-Porter, 2008; Sellnow, Veil, & Anthony, 2015). To approach ego issues, visionary mentors can assist with helping protégés promote inclusiveness of multiple viewpoints and respect for others’ perspectives to reduce any negative social impacts during the decision-making processes.
Secondly, researchers may apply the multi-loop social learning theory to organizational cultures respective to how organizational policies and procedures influence decision-making process, as higher education systems comprised of complex business models are aimed to emerge global research initiatives (Blackmore, 2007; Medema, Wals, & Adamowski, 2014). During the revaluation phrase, visionary mentors can conduct perception management research to ensure the findings of quality and ethical research is applied to appropriate human resources’ policies and procedures aimed to fit into the scheme of global learning and stimulating social change, internal and external of higher education institutions (Blackmore, 2007). Perception management is a communication strategy, which includes gaining a competitive advantage by facilitating what is known as information warfare (Koop, 2005). In addition, the process includes multiple strategies for behaviors intended to provide purposeful deceit. Deception can be exhibited in four ways: (a) degradation, destruction, or denial of information; (b) corruption or deception; (c) denial or disruption; and (d) denial (Koop, 2005). Here, visionary mentors, who engage in netweaving, might be tasked with assessing any massive internal changes stimulated by global academic- related research initiatives, to include the participation of acquiring professors, to ensure seasoned and new emergent scholars do not become a victim of information warfare.
The focus of organizational learning should not be focused primarily on the operator and executive cultures (Schein, 1996). The executive adapting learning processes to meet the challenges of the 21st century should consider adopting all cultural dimensions to include the engineering culture (Schein, 1996). This same conclusions applied to the higher education community will prompt double-loop learning. Within the context of double-loop learning, leaders and juniors, who examine behaviors that either help support the adherence to the same outcome or alternative solutions and their appropriateness to the desired outcome, will derive quality decisions to approach human and technical challenges effectively. Based on the current study’s finding, one could infer that the HELs’ support a double-looped learning environment concerning the (a) solicitation of feedback about decisions, (b) self-reflection of decision- making processes, (c) evaluation of changes implemented to original decision-making processes, and (d) protocols used to help improve decision-making processes. Part of this willingness is that the HELs are attuned to the human and technical challenges and their effects on decision making faced within their organization.
The overall behavior of an organization is characterized based on the theory-in-use behavior rather than the espoused theory, when organizational members construct
image of events and solutions creating a risk of developing an incomplete picture of the situations and their role in approaching the situation (Argyris & Schön, 1978). Organizational learning helps with understanding the mental models and how models can influence the culture of an organization. To transition from a single- to double-loop learning environment, academic organizational leaders must be willing to detect and correct internal and external variables that could hinder learning whereby the knowledge and innovations gained from clear assessments of faculty and student outcomes become a part of the organization’s memory (Argyris & Schön, 1978).
Thus, for their institutions to be competitive, higher education leaders might consider challenging old and unethical paradigms and consider their appropriateness in meeting the challenges facing academic paradigms and their stakeholders, by initially contracting and acquiring professors who will be mentored for the role of full-time/tenured professor. Feedback from acquiring professors could assist in devising more appropriate applied assessments, whereby the findings may derive solutions geared to improved retention and the deployment of new technologies. To remain competitive, higher education leaders must further engage in visionary mentorship or deploy visionary mentorship whereby learning continues to evolve through a validation processes that involve applying case studies and industry-related research to the findings that emerged from internal evaluations and assessments.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests
The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
The author(s) received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article.
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Jeanie Murphy has over a decade of experience in higher education and over a decade of experience in operations management. She has presented at various conferences on the topics of leadership, mentoring the adult learner, and entrepreneurship. Jeanie is the chief executive officer and founder of the consultant company, J. Murphy & Associates, and is the Assistant Vice President of the Scholastic Research Institute (SRI) operated under the umbrella of the Alumni Association Network (AAN).
Sharon Michael-Chadwell has more than 20 years of experience in higher education in the United States, 18 years in public education, and 13 years as a corporate manager. She has publications in the areas of gifted and talented issues and marketing issues related to higher education. She is an assistant professor with Capella University as well as chief executive officer and founder of Keen Notes Education Consultancy.