ASSESSING THE STUDENT LEARNING
FAYETTEVILLE STATE UNIVERSITY
DEPT. OF MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
Dr. Kodippili Asitha Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science Fayetteville State University, NC.
Assessing the Student Learning
In this paper, we discuss the importance of the performance-based assessment as a part of assessing student learning in a Basic Probability and Statistics course. We will share our experience of creating a Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) style performance task and scoring rubrics to score students’papers.
Assessing the Student Learning
Using in-house designed CLA-Style Performance Task
Asitha Kodippili, Fayetteville State University
In this paper, we discuss the importance of the performance-based assessment as a part of assessing student learning in a Basic Probability and Statistics course. We will share our experience of creating a Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) style performance task and instructor’s solution manual.
Assessment is an integral part of instruction, as it determines whether or not the goals of education are being met. Assessment affects decisions about grades, instructional needs, and curriculum. Traditional assessment is the norm in most of Introductory Probability and Statistics courses. Questions that appear on traditional assessments typically test skills in isolation of a problem context and do not test whether or not students are able to integrate statistical knowledge to solve a real life problem, or are able to communicate effectively using the language of statistics (Jolliffe 1991; Garfield 1994). However, today’s students need to know not only the basic probability and statistics skills, but also skills that will allow them to face a world that is continually changing. They must be able to think critically, to analyze, and to make inferences. Therefore, it is critically important to incorporate an alternative assessment that require students to generate rather than choose a response in assessing student performance.
The Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) is a performance-based assessment that measures critical thinking, problem solving, scientific and quantitative reasoning, writing, and the ability to critique and make arguments. Therefore, CLA style performance task is a very suitable alternative assessment method to use together with traditional assessment to evaluate student learning in basic probability and statistics courses.
In this study, we discuss how to develop CLA-Style performance task suitable for a basic probability and statistics course and asses the value added student learning.
The CL!’s performance tasks were modeled after measures developed by Klein for the California bar examination (Klein and Bolus 1982; Klein 1983) and by the “Tasks in Critical Thinking” that were developed by the New Jersey Department of Higher Education (Ewell 1994; Erwin and Sebrell 2003). With this approach, tasks are derived from a domain of real-world jobs suggested by activities found in education, work, policy, and everyday practice. To perform the tasks, test-takers need to think critically and analytically about the information they are given and communicate their decisions, judgments, or recommendations clearly and with appropriate justification (see McClelland 1973). Part of the problem is for students to decide what information to use and what to ignore. Students integrate these multiple sources of information to arrive at a problem solution, decision, or recommendation.
In-house designed CLA-Style Performance Task
In this task, students are asked to assume they work as independent insurance advisors and have been requested by a client “Jeff” to recommend him the best auto insurance policy out of Liability only, Collision policy with $500 deductible per accident, Collision policy with $1000 deductible per accident based on his personal information such as the age and the type and the value of the car.
In evaluating the situation, students are given a library of information about “How Age Affects Auto Insurance Rates“, “Risk and Travel”, “What are the odds of a car crash and their severities?”
and clients information
Client Information: Age 22 Car: Honda Civic value at $10,000
Hint: The lowest cost option is the option that has the lowest sum of insurance premium plus expected cost to repair his car in case of an accident.
How Age Affects Auto Insurance Rates
By John Reed, Senior editor Association of Insurance Professionals (AIP)
Average auto insurance rate varies widely depending upon the age of the driver. When all other factors are the same or equal, older more experience drivers pay much lower auto insurance premium rates than younger drivers. In order to better illustrate how age affects auto insurance rates, here is a sampling of rates per six-month policy collected from MycarInsurance.com for a one person (male) policy with liability coverage amounts $50,000 bodily injury per person, $100,000 total bodily injury for each accident, $50,000 property damage per accident for a Honda Civic value less than 15000.
|Age Group||Average rate Liability Only||Average rate $500 Deductible||Average Rate $1000 Deductible|
|75 and up||$605||$985||$905|
Risk and Travel
According to auto.howitworks.com, we drive safer cars on safer roads today. Travel risk is often expressed in terms of accident rate or death rates. The figure shows the automobile fatality rates per 100 million vehicle miles travelled (VMT) during the decade of 2002 – 2011.
What are the odds of a car crash and their severities?
By Jorge Bush, senior researcher at National Highway Traffic Safety administration
Like most odds, calculating the odds of a car crash and their severities isn’t an exact science without having much more knowledge about your traveling statistics. The factors contributing to the variance in these odds are: where you drive, how much driving you do yearly, what kind of vehicle you drive, your personal driving experience, and your age.
Without knowing all of the details, some general odds can still be roughly concluded. The statistical projections for the odds of a crash according to age for the year 2014 are shown in Figure 1. Also the severity of crashes based on automobile accident damage costs are shown in
Figure 2 .
FIGURE 1: ODDS OF A CRASH IN 6-MONTHS
FIGURE 2: AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENT DAMAGE
Instructor’s Manual for “Liability or Collision Insurance”
In order to calculate expected cost of damage to the car: We must first find the probability distribution of damage. Document 2: “What are the odds of a car crash and their severities?” has information needed to find the probability distribution.
- The odd of a crash in 6 months is 0.3. Because, this is the probability of a crash of someone in the age group 16-25.
- The amount of damage in case of accident: The average value is used. For example, if the damage is 0 ≤ ?????? ≤ 500, then damage = 250.
- Insurance premium: Document 1: “How age affect auto insurance rates”; Premiums for the age group 20 -24 is used.
Probability distribution of ?: the cost of damage (for a six months)
Now let us calculate the expected cost to repair under each insurance policy and then the expected total cost.
Policy: Liability Only – If an accident occurs Jeff has to bear the repair cost:
?(?) = ∑ ? ∗ ?(?)
= 0*0.7 + 250*0.135 + 750*0.045 + 3000*0.075 + 7500*0.045
Expected Total Cost = Expected repair cost + Premium = 630 + 860
Policy: $1000 Deductible Collision –If accident occurs Jeff has to bear the first $1000 of repair cost:
Expected Repair Cost = 0*0.7 + 250*0.135 + 750*0.045 + 1000*0.075 + 1000*0.045 = 187.50
Expected Total Cost = Expected repair cost + Premium = 187.50 + 1310 = 1497.50
Policy: $500 Deductible Collision –If accident occurs Jeff has to bear the first $500 of repair cost:
Expected Repair Cost = 0*0.7 + 250*0.135 + 500*0.045 + 500*0.075 + 500*0.045
Expected Total Cost = Expected repair cost + Premium
= 116.25 + 1390
I recommend Liability only because it has the least expected total cost.
Garfield, J. 1994. Beyond Testing and Grading: Using Assessment to Improve Student Learning. Journal of Statistical Education, 2(1).
Jolliffe, F. 1991. “Assessment of the Understanding of Statistical Concepts,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Teaching Statistics, Vol. 1, ed. D. Vere-Jones, Otago, NZ: Otago University Press, pp. 461-466.
Klein, S., and R. Bolus. 1982. An analysis of the relationship between clinical skills and bar examination results. Report prepared for the Committee of Bar Examiners of the State Bar of California and National Conference of Bar Examiners.
Klein, S. 1983. Relationship of bar examinations to performance tests of lawyering skills. Paper presented to American Educational Research Association, Chicago, Illinois.
Ewell, P. T. 1994. A policy guide for assessment: Making good use of the Tasks in Critical Thinking. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.
Erwin, D., and K. W. Sebrell 2003. Assessment of Critical Thinking: ETS’s Tasks in Critical Thinking. The Journal of General Education, 52(1): 50 -70.
ACTION RESEARCH ON A GLOBAL TRAINING PROGRAM OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION MODEL
HANYANG UNIVERSITY, SOUTH KOREA
CENTER FOR MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH.
HANYANG UNIVERSITY, SOUTH KOREA
CENTER FOR CREATIVE CONVERGENCE EDUCATION.
Prof. Hyangsuk Bu
Center for Multicultural Education and Research
Prof. Kyunghye Kim
Center for Creative Convergence Education
Action Research on a Global Training Program of Intercultural Communication Model
This study aims to present an action research on the 28-day-long global training program which was organized and practiced as an intercultural communication model. The objective of the program was to introduce the model of Korean higher education system to other countries.
Action Research on a Global Training Program of Intercultural Communication Model
Bu, Hyangsuk * Kim, Kyunghye
Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea
This study aims to present an action research on a 28-day-long global training program Higher Education Policy Design and Development. The training program was organized and practiced as an intercultural communication model and was evaluated highly effective. The objective of the program was to introduce the model of Korean higher education system to 12 government officials serving in the Ministry of Education of 7 other countries. As the final products of the program, the participants designed action plans that would be applicable in their home countries. This study developed an intercultural communication model to ground the training process, which ultimately enabled trust building and sustainable relationship through authentic experiences. The intercultural communication model of this study had three aspects: 1) understanding the participants; 2) curriculum design; and 3) administration. At the end of the program, a survey was conducted asking the participant trainees to evaluate the areas of preparation, curriculum, achievement, sustainability and overall quality of the program. The result revealed that the program was highly satisfactory by scoring 89 on preparation, 93.57 on curriculum, 95.56 on achievement, 94.52 on sustainability and 93.33 on the overall quality of the program, the average of which marked 93.40.
A training program aims to provide the participants with the professional knowledge and technologies that are required in their workplaces. A global training plays a significant role not only to fulfill such fundamental objectives of a training but also to build trust in the relationship between the trainers and the trainees by establishing sustainable communication channels. The trust building among the participating countries becomes a critical element for success in case of global training particularly when it is offered by a government-led organization. Therefore, developing a curriculum that is carefully designed not only to provide professional training but also to nurture intercultural communication and understanding for trust-building is crucial for a successful global training.
Without a well-designed curriculum with the dual objectives mentioned above, the participants will face numerous obstacles. One of the most frequently reported obstacles in a global training is the language barrier (Fantini, 1995). Since the majority of the global training programs are conducted in English while the participants’ native languages are diverse, frequent miscommunication is inevitable. Apart from the language barrier, a single objective only to deliver professional knowledge can be problematic since the development model of the host country cannot be always applicable to the setting of the participating countries (Byram, 1997). The irrelevancy of the curriculum will eventually demotivate the participants from learning. The last disturbance of the global training program is the culture differences between the host and participating countries (Kupla, 2008). If there is no cultural understanding, some of the behaviors that are natural to one culture may be offensive to the other.
The language, knowledge and culture barriers that so far have been illustrated as the major obstacles for successful global training can be summarized as the issues of intercultural communication. In other words, the global training programs without intercultural communication training cannot bring positive effects. Such programs would rather result in the opposite no matter how excellent the contents are.
However, few studies are conducted to develop a well-designed curriculum to achieve the true objectives of the global training for various reasons. First, a training program is not considered to be sustainable since it generally targets a short-period of training for a specific purpose, therefore does not need a curriculum with consistent criteria. Another reason is that there is the strong assumption that consistency in the global training curriculum is not possible or practical due to the diverse cultural backgrounds of the participants. Unfortunately, if there are any interests in global training program development, they are only focused on the delivery of professional knowledge failing to consider the symbolic role of the global training for trust-building.
As mentioned earlier in this section, the major objective of a global training is to establish communication channel to build sustainable rapport between the trainers and the trainees. From this perspective, it is required to develop a curriculum that is grounded in intercultural communication model so that it is applicable to any circumstances which require multilateral understanding and collaboration. This insinuates that it will be valuable to investigate crucial factors for successful global training of intercultural communication model by studying an authentic action model.
This study aims to describe an action model of a global training that is designed by the principles of intercultural communication model. The global training program of this study was organized by the south Korean government office Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA). The Center for Multicultural Education and Research at Hanyang university located in Seoul, South Korea developed a 28-day long training program to offer professional training to the government officials serving in the Ministry of Education of 7 other countries. This paper will describe how a global training program of intercultural communication model was organized, practiced and evaluated by the action research method.
II. Theoretical Background for the Study
1. Action Research
Action research is a systematic and reflective approach for a person to seek for solutions to the problems they face (Stringer, 2007). An action research typically follows the routine of three levels; look, think, and act. The outcome of this set of activities is reflected in the following action research to go through another set of look, think, and act process in a recycling manner.
“Look” in the action research is to collect all the relevant sources to clearly illustrate the objective subject of the study. “Think” is to analyze the facts to figure out what the current phenomena indicate about the subject. “Act” is to make a plan, put the plan into practice and evaluate the result. (Kemmis & McTaggart 1999).
A number of researchers point out that the major characteristics of the action research are most applicable in the field of education. Holly, Arthar, and Kasten (2004) explain how action research can be used for curriculum purposes in classroom contexts. Mills (2006) considers action research as a fundamental component of teaching in parallel with the curriculum development, assessment and classroom management. Stringer (2004) applies action research more broadly to classroom teaching, which encompasses the student research and work with their families and communities.
Global training is also suitable for a subject of action research. A set of global training program should be run by a new scope each time because the participants and training contents are always changing. For this reason, a case study on an action research is valuable as the crucial sources to draw the critical factors for successful global training. In this sense, the action research approach is the most suitable method that practitioners of global training have to acquire to apply to their own circumstances.
2. Intercultural Communication Model
The intercultural communication models can be categorized as; compositional models (Howard Hamilton et al., 1998; Deardorff, 2006), developmental models (Bennett, 1986; Gullahorn and Gullahorn, 1962), adaptational models (Kim, 1988; Navas et al, 2005), causal path models (Arasaratnam, 2008; Griffith and Harvey, 2000), and co-orientational models (Byram, 1997; Fantini, 1995, 2001). The compositional models concentrate on components required intercultural communication. They focus on the traits, characteristics, and skills that are required for the intercultural interaction. The developmental models seek to trace the changes stage by stage through a period of time. The adaptational models illustrate the process of mutual adjustment and emphasize the mutual dependence of the multiple interactants, who affect the process of intercultural communication. The casual path models strive to find explicit correlation among the components of intercultural communication. Finally, the co-orientational models highlight the role of cognition in the process of intercultural communication dealing with the concepts of understanding, common prospects, accuracy, immediacy, and clarity. They also pay attention to what motivate the interactants to pursue the common goals when they reach a threshold level of mutual understanding. The co-oreintataional model is considered as the most compatible intercultural communication model to a short-term global training.
Kupla (2008), a representative scholar of co-oreintational model, explains that impression management plays a significant role in intercultural communication for the interactants to interrelate effectively and cordially. In other words, the impression of the others performs an important function in pursuit of shared goals beyond one’s identity and world views. The positive impression in this process is delivered by one’s values, attitudes, and behaviors that enable trust-building among the participants.
Figure1. Intercultural communication model for a global training based on Kupla model
As Kupla (2008) asserted, the positive impression management makes it possible through the interaction of the individual perceptual worlds to see the inter-culture as the interesting and mutual understanding of the shared symbol systems. This is why the co-orientational models are most appropriate for a global training program because the ultimate goal of a global training is the image sharing of the shared symbol systems for trust-building.
The diagram of Figure 1 illustrates the intercultural communication model that the global training program of this study applied. This communication model was developed based on the Intercultural Communication Skills Model of Kupla (2008). Figure 1 indicates that the effectiveness of a global training program of intercultural communication model parallels with the intercultural competencies of the organization who provides the global training. The intercultural communication models categorize five aspects of evaluation on the effectiveness of the training programs of this model.
First is the aspect of understanding. It means how clearly and accurately the contents of the global training program are delivered to the participants so that both the trainers and the trainees share the common objectives and interpretations. The second aspect is the development of relationship that reflects intimacy among the participants. It evaluates how well the relationship is established among the participants through a global training program. Third is the satisfaction of communication in a program. The feeling of satisfaction can help the trainers and trainees build trust, and can be one of the criteria to assess the level of the participants’ intention hoping to build a deeper relationship with the trainers after training. The fourth aspect is related to the goal achievement. It assesses whether the program is well organized to reach the goal of the program. The last aspect is the program evaluation by the participants. For example, the participants are asked whether they would recommend the training program to their colleagues in the future.
To sum up, a global training can promote intercultural communication only if the training program is effectively managed to satisfy clear knowledge transfer, the development of relationship, and sense of accomplishment of the participants. Based upon these theoretical backgrounds, this study utilizes the pre-existing questionnaire developed by KOICA with the items of the program contents, overall satisfaction, sustainability, and sense of accomplishment to evaluate the effectiveness of the global training program it investigates. An item of preparation process is added to the questionnaire to assess the accessibility of the training program since the participants come from numerous other countries.
3. The Context of the Study
The global training program of this study was commissioned by KOICA to offer a professional training on Higher Education Policy Design and Development as one of the KOICA’s global-aid programs called the Capacity Improvement and Advancement for Tomorrow (CIAT). KOICA is a government organization which was established in 1991 to carry out its mission to reduce poverty, promote living standards and help realize sustainable, equitable and inclusive development in the countries in need for global well-being. Some of these efforts are reflected in the CIAT Program which provides opportunities to participants to gain first-hand knowledge of Korea’s development experiences. The programs are designed to enable the participants to apply what they have learned for the development of their home countries. Since 1991, KOICA has offered about 3,700 courses to more than 58,000 participants from 172 countries. The program is offered in a wide range of topics including public administration, economic development, science and technology, agriculture and health. KOICA is committed to constantly renovate its HRD programs so as to meet the changing needs of partner countries.
The training organization, The Center for Multicultural Education and Research, is an affiliated institution which belongs to the Industry-University Cooperation Foundation of Hanyang University in Seoul, South Korea. It carries out comprehensive research related to multicultural education such as the international emigration, globalization in order to cope with intercultural cooperation, conflicts, coexisting issues with other people, and to pursue Korean society transforming into the desirable multicultural society.
The center as a comprehensive multicultural research institute conducts various theoretical research, action research to develop practical programs according to the actual necessity, and multicultural exchange program to encourage people to share their ideas from different backgrounds. In addition, it also takes a role of delivering professional lectures of eminent experts, training future multicultural educationalists, developing certificated multicultural education programs, providing professional consulting, and establishing domestic and foreign network to connect foreign multicultural centers.
The global training program Higher Education Policy Design and Development of this study was constructed with the following official objectives.
- To understand various educational environment of the participating countries;
- To introduce higher education circumstances including policies, systems, methodology of Republic of Korea;
- To raise the quality of education and capacity development of the participating countries by assisting them to design feasible higher education policies;
- To exchange the views on current educational issues of the higher education related sectors with various players;
- To strengthen international network in the higher education sectors and to expand the base of education ODA business among the participating countries
III. An Action Model of Global Training
The global training program of this study is organized based upon the intercultural communication models as its theoretical background. The implementation of the program is carried out following the process of action research; look, think, and act. Specifically, each step of these three aspects refers to: understanding the participants, organizing the curriculum, and operating the training.
1. Look: Understanding the participants
A total of twelve government officials from seven different countries participated in the global training program. All the participants were serving at the Ministry of Education in their own countries, and their positions were general managers (2 persons), middle-level managers (9), and a high level manager (1). Their ages ranged from twenties (5), thirties (2) and forties (3) to fifties (2). Before the training program began, the contexts of participating countries were examined focusing on their economy, religion, industrial structure, and the number of internet users and colleges. Then as the groundwork for action planning, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of each context were analyzed.[Table 1] Participant’s contextual information
At the beginning of the program, the participants presented their current issues of higher education in their countries in the form of country report. The current issues reported by each country can be categorized as following; sustainable global partnership (1), improvement of educational circumstances for universal higher education (3), strategies of educational information (1), vocational and technical education (1), and community education (1).
2. Think: Organizing the curriculum
The training program was organized based on the process of Context Input Process Product (CIPP). The CIPP model started from analyzing the contexts of the participating countries and their current issues. Based upon the result of this preliminary analysis, the prospective outcome was established and the curriculum was designed accordingly to achieve the expected outcome. The CIPP model was introduced to monitor each of the process of the training program and to help the participants make a possible decision during the training (Table 2).
The Context of the global training of this study consisted of the global trends and the introduction to Korean higher education. Input was made with the common issues and differentiated issues in higher education. Process included the strategies to deal with the current issues of participating countries. Product handled the modules for setting action plans. Along with the CIPP process, an Experience module was added, which helped the participants better understand the host country, South. Korea through several field trips, industrial inspections, culture inquiries, and culture experiences.[Table 2] CIPP(context, Input, Process, and Product) Model for making curriculum
The program was carried out smoothly following the stages of CIPP process for 28 days. A total of 122 hours were allotted for the whole training, which consistied of three hours of entrance ceremony and orientation, 45 hours of lectures, 10 hours of industrial inspection, eight hours of activities for relationship building, 32 hours of introspection for problem solution, and 4 hours of evaluation and completion ceremony.
3. Act: Operating the training
The operation of the global training of this study had four aspects. The first was offering the principles of higher education models. The second aspect included the lectures and field trips to enable the participants to make connection between the principles and the actual cases. Third was for the participants to construct action plans that were applicable to their own contexts by analyzing Korean higher education model. The last aspect was to provide the time for cultural experiences to understand Korean culture.
These four aspects of the training were distributed for action throughout the week. For example, from Mondays to Thursdays, the participants attended the lectures on the theories and application cases and then were engaged in reflective discussions to work on their action plans. Fridays and Saturdays were assigned for the field trips and culture experiences. The daily schedule started at 9:30 AM and ended at 5:50 PM. The first three hours in the morning were the lectures on the theories, and more lectures on application cases followed for two hours in the afternoon. After the day’s lectures, the participants had reflective discussion sessions to prepare their action plans that they would adopt in the situations of their own countries.[Table 3] The role of practitioners for the global training
Although the action plan module took up only one aspect of the training, the whole program, in fact, was oriented toward designing action plans for each country. From the sessions of lectures to the reflective discussions, the lecturers, facilitators and student supporters worked together to help the participants to clearly understand the principles and the application cases of Korean higher education so that the participants were able to work on feasible action plans for their own contexts (see Table 3).
The major objective of the global training of intercultural communication model is for the participants to draw practical action plans for their own countries by reinterpreting Korean higher education models. The action plans that the participants establish during the training are virtually to design the structural aspects of the policies referring to the experts’ consultations in order to settle the current issues and urgent problems of their countries. For this, the participants made a report on their current issues in higher education at the beginning of the training, then while the training program was running, they analyzed the application cases and theories of Korean higher education in comparison to their own. Finally, the action plan workshop guided the participants to systematically organize their plans with specific details to report as their final portfolios (Table 4).[Table 4] Approach to establishing action plans
IV. Assessment of the Global Training of Intercultural Communication Model
1. The Participants’ Assessment
After the whole training program was completed, the participants’ assessment on the training program was made in the following five aspects; preparation process which participants offered, quality of the contents, participants’ products, sustainability, and overall satisfaction. The results were converted to scores based on five-point scale; very dissatisfied, dissatisfied, neither dissatisfied nor satisfied, satisfied and very satisfied, to 100 points. The grades of the five categories mentioned above is summarized as follows; preparation process 89.0, contents 93.57, participants’products 95.56, sustainability 94.52, and overall satisfaction was 93.33. This reveals the average of the total scores is 93.40.
In case of Preparation process, the questions included how specific the information about the evaluation process was (91.7), if a clear guideline for processing was provided (86.7), whether the process of selecting participants as a manpower in the related field was proper or not (88.3), and the overall satisfaction of participants’ achievement (91.7).
The quality of the training contents were evaluated by following criteria; the quality of lecturers and the suitability of teaching methods (95), the appropriateness of educational equipment, tools, and materials (95), the contents fitting the goal of training (95), the correspondence of the subjects of lectures for participating countries’ higher education (90), the proper contents of setting their action plans (90), and the propriety of field trips (95). Lastly, the participants made comments regarding their assessment on the overall program.
- All the activities were better than I had expected.
- All lecturers professionally delivered good lectures with good teaching methods. I really appreciated that all the staff at training organization have offered everything we all needed for the program.
- The program, Higher Education Policy Design & Development, helped me to set my action plan in practice. The group of instructors, classes, and teaching materials satisfied me, and what I have learned during the program will help me to develop the educational system in my country.
- I was really satisfied with the contents offered by the instructors.
- Two or Three lectures were not related to the program. Although most lecturers satisfied me, some did not. I hoped I would have enough time to discuss college programs and policies with the group of lecturers.
The goal achievement of the training program revealed that; the effectiveness of the program (95), the degree of helping to action plans (93.3), the degree of helping to understand South. Korea (96.7), and the satisfaction level of the overall program (96.7). The participants also commented on the goal achievement as follows:
- I could gain information about Korean history and life. I set up the goal to improve the educational system in my country with a hope.
- I learned how to build an action plan through the program, and I will teach that to my coworkers when I get back to my home country.
- I could learn a lot of information about higher education by sharing thoughts and experiences of higher education with the other participants.
- Following improvements were recommended; The session which develops the abilities to design educational policies is needed. I recommend that the training organization have to interact more and more.
As for the aspect of the sustainability, the assessment was made in six areas; the accessibility of the contents of training in each country (95), the degree of theory use in their work (96.7), intention to recommend the program to their coworkers (98.3), the degree of helping to set work plans (96.7), intention for networking of the follow-up services (91.7), and the satisfaction of the sustainability during overall training process (91.7). Participants added their opinions in their comments as in the following.
- Actually, it is somewhat difficult to apply the knowledge and information learned during the program to my work place.
- I will share the knowledge I learned from the program with my coworkers, and will establish our own educational policies. it will change the education of my country for the better.
- The program was such a short-time training, but I gained not olny a lot of knowledge but also memorable friendship I will never forget.
- I am really lucky to participate in the program, and it became my good experience, I also want to take part in another KOICA program.
Finally, the overall satisfaction for the program had the value 99.3 points. There are some reasons for that.
- It was excellent that the planning of KOICA and Center for Multicultural Education and Research at Hanyang University, the selection of the group of instructors, field trips, facilities.
- It was difficult to communicate with KOIKA bus drivers. The workers at information desk at KOICA need to be more kind.
- I am so happy to share the information and knowledge with my cowokers when I go back to my country. I met awesome Korean people, and I hope we will be such good cooperators with each other. The program provided me with the unforgettable experience which will change my future, and I really appreciate that.
- I certainly love the other participants, all staff, and all Korean stuff! People were so nice and kind. The staff were always ready to help me. Also, Korean food and culture were so fantastic. The only problem during program was that I could not sleep well due to jet-leg.
- Thanks to the wonderful training program, all the participants including myself obtained good results.
The global training of this case study aims to provide a quality training so that the participants could return to their countries having positive images of the host country, South Korea as a place for communication. At the beginning of the program, some participants had wait-and-see attitude as an evaluator or it seemed like that they felt awkward. After the training, however, they left heartful messages such as; “Thanks, I learned a lot of things,” “Thanks for Koreans’ diligence,” and “I found many lovely friends in Korea.” These messages of positive feedback indicated that the program was not only delivering lectures but also building trust to be the place for communication.
The global training is also a channel of drills to develop the relationship between host country and participating countries. The participants’ evaluation supported that the goal of the training has been successfully achieved ; “This action plan I have made during the training will help to build and develop better higher education policies in my country,” “I won the most memorable friendship in my life here!” and “I want to participate in other KOICA programs, too.”
In the summative evaluation workshop in which all the lecturers, facilitators, staff members, and supporters participated, they expressed that the training was such a valuable experience. Looking forward to working with new participants, they discussed the new aspects to be reflected in the next training program which will be the developmental model of the existing methods. After all, the global training program of intercultural communication model has become the place of communication offering positive experiences to both the participants and the organization. The global training experiences have produced valuable results which realize intercultural understanding, communication, trust-building, and positive attitudes to collaborate in the future.
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THE PRINCIPLE OF TRANSFORMING THE ARCHETYPAL FEMININE IN KOREAN MYTH AND FOLKLORES
CHANG, YOUNG RAN
HANKUK UNIVERSITY OF FOREIGN STUDIES, SOUTH KOREA
Prof. Young Ran Chang
Hankuk University of Foreign Studies,
The Principle of Transforming the Archetypal Feminine in Korean Myth and Folklores
This paper aims to achieve (1) to introduce that different versions of Mago Halmi story
has something of a family resemblance via philological studies, (2) to analyze the
archetype of the ‘Feminine’ and to establish the mythological significance of the story of
Mago Halmi, finally (3) to explain the ambivalence of Mago Halmi by the method of
The Principle of Transforming the Archetypal Feminine in Korean Myth and Folklores
In the analysis of Korean myths and folklores, it is difficult to find stories that depict the individual characteristics of mothers. This is because the mothers are socially forced into silence, or die. However,in modern-day feminist Korean discussions, maternal myths featuring the motif of the mother’s sacrifice are at their peak. The principal narrator of the maternal myth is not the mother herself, but the other persona disguised as a mother, or a mother who has been conscientized as the mother. This study analyzes the archetypal image of the mother in Korean myths and folklores and seeks to critically accept and theorize a positive system of values for the modern-day women. However, the recorded lore and literary narratives are massive in volume, making it difficult to deal with the archetypal image of the mother in all sources. Therefore, the works that were selected are well-known in general and have significant numbers of literary studies devoted to them. First, the mythical image of the Korean mother will be explained through comparative analysis between Western myths and the creation myths appearing in the shamanic myths, comparing the major characteristics of the maternal goddess and the human mother. Moreover,
this study ultimately focuses on analyzing the discussions of the mother from a perspective of cultural philosophy, instead of literary analysis of Korean myths and folklores, in order to study the archetype and changes in feminine consciousness and the awareness of women
2. The role of the goddess and the problem of fertility in Korean creation myths
Who is the mother found in the Korean myths? Western myths can largely be divided into procreation myths and creation myths. Foremost, in the Greek myths written by Hesiod, the procreation myths in the West, the virgin birth of the mother god, Gaia, gives birth everything that exists in this world.1 The thought that this world was born as a mother would give birth to her child signifies that the first god was a goddess, or a mother goddess. The procreation myths can be further classified into two types. In the first type there is only one god, normally depicted as feminine. This is because femininity symbolizes the principle agent of fertility. Thus, these myths tell that everything in this world came to be through the mother goddess giving virgin birth. For example, in Hesiod’s myths, there are no male gods in the beginning, only Gaia, and then she gives birth to offspring. The world is generated by the unions of her offspring. In the second type, more than one god exists in the beginning, and the mother goddess and the father god normally exist together. The first parents engage in union to give birth to countless offspring and form everything in the world. In the Babylonian procreation myths, the father god, Apsu, and the mother goddess, Tiamat, exist at the beginning. They engage in union to give birth many gods. Western procreation mythology, do not depict the process of giving birth to universe worldly formation as a simple natural phenomenon, but compare it to humanity and explain the formation as if parents had given birth to children.
Next, the world creation myths claim that the first god “created” the world, of which the Christian myths are the leading examples. Unlike procreation myths, it is not the “giver of birth”, but the “creator” in the beginning, and, as such, the metaphorical gender of divinity is masculinity. In the Christian myths, it is not the Great Mother but the Great Father who exists in the beginning.2 In another case, the Babylonian myths, the new hero god, Marduk, creates the world by slaying the first mother
1 Hesiodos, Theogonia, 115ff. cf. Hesiod, Theogony, edited with Prolegomena and Commentary by M.L. West, Clarendon Press,1966, p191.
2 Young-Ran Chang, “The Philosophical View of World in Greek Great Mother Myths”, Journal of the Society of Philosophical Studies, Vol. 55, 2001, pp.86-89.
goddess, Tiamat, and by dividing her body to create the world.3 However, there is no need to think that the characteristics or values of maternity or paternity are described just because gods in the myths of creation or procreation are depicted as mothers or fathers. While explaining how everything in this world came into existence, only comparisons are made to the father or mother; therefore.
Korean cosmogonic myths take a kind of both procreation and creation. First, One myth that can be classified as the classic cosmogonic myths is the Invocation Rituals, passed down on Jeju Island. It explains the origin of the world through the method of division, occurring in a state in which the sky and the earth are not divided but mixed.4
In cosmogonic myths, the division of the sky and earth is a mytheme also commonly seen in the myths of the West. In the Greek myths, Ouranos, the sky god, makes his way down to the earth goddess, Gaia, and is castrated by their son Cronos, resulting in the divide of the sky and the earth. 5 In the Egyptian myths, as the sky goddess and the earth god do not wish to separate, the air god, Shu, pushes the sky upward to drive it from the earth. The story of the divide between the sky and the earth is a common mytheme in procreation myths. However, the Korean creation myth, the Invocation Rituals, depicts the world being created naturally, instead of by gods with independent personas who give birth to it. In reality, this myth could be seen as a form of cosmogony, instead of a myth of formation.
Next, in the Korean myths of origin, those that take the form of creation myths have also been passed down. However, the persona of god that is the principal agent of world creation varies. Generally, in the Western cosmogonic myths, this god is depicted as “female,” and “male” in the myths of creation. However, in the Korean myths, female and male gods appear regardless of whether the myths pertain to formation or creation. In particular, the myths of world creation sometimes feature male gods, and sometimes female gods. For example, in the Kim SsangDolee version of the Creation Epic, passed down in the Hamgyong province, Maitreya(彌勒) is featured as the typical god of creation. 6 This Creation Epic is unclear in its expression of the separation of the sky and the earth, but it seems that Maitreya plays the role of the god of creation. “Maitreya was born when the sky and the earth were attached; Maitreya pushed the sky up as if it had been the handle of a lid, placed copper pillars on the four corners to prevent them from coming together again, and fixed the number of suns and the moons at one, as the god of creation.”7 In this myth, the first god of the world is a male god called Maitreya
In the Korean creation myths, there are goddesses and gods. Let us look at the MagoHalmi, the representative goddess of Korean creation mythology. The myth of MagoHalmi had many branches of transmission.8 The MagoHalmi that remains in the form of a myth of creation belongs to a type of tale in which a female giant is responsible for creation. There are remained so many stories, such as one in which MagoHalmi, the giant, creates the mountains and rivers with her hands, 9 the mountain peaks by gathering soil from her skirts, 10 or mountains and rivers with her feces and urine.11 In the tales of MagoHalmi, when it is said that she created the world herself, she appears as more of a “creator” than a “mother.” This is because she has created the world not through the act of “giving birth,” but instead through the act of “creating.”
In the history of Western myths, those that explain the formation of the world through the act of “giving birth” precede those that explain it through the act of “creation.” The act of “giving birth” to the world by the Great Mother that appears in the beginning of human history occurs when humans and nature are placed in an analogous relationship and is explained in a symbolic manner. However, humans have come to focus on the act of “creating” the world after civilization began developing, which seems to be a method of explanation for later generations. The Great Mother Goddess in the Western myths is not only the being that gives birth to the world, but oversees the balance and order of nature, and exerts total
3 Enuma Elish Ⅳ, 129-140. cf. James B. Pritchard(ed.), Ancient Near Eastern Texts, Princeton University Press, 1955, p.60ff.
4 Hun Sun Kim, Creation Myths of Korea, Gilbut, 1994. 393-4.
5 Hesiodos, Theogonia, 154-181.
6 Hun-Sun Kim, ibid., p.230: Gatherings of Jin-Tae Son, Kim SsangDolee version, “Creation Epic”, Chosun Shinga Ibun.
7 Dae-Suk Suh, “Identity of Korean mythology from the perspective of mythology of Northeast Asia”, Asian Comparative
Folklore Society Call for Papers, 2007.
8 Jeen-Ok Kang, “Mago-Halmi in Korean Myth” , The Korean Folklore Vol. 25, 5-10.
9 The Academy of Korean Studies, The collection of Korean oral literature, Digital Archive, 2-1 568.
10 ibid., 4-2, 813.
11 ibid., 8-8, 125.
power over the lives and deaths of not only plants and animals, but also humans.
However, in the Korean myths of the origin of the world, the goddess has lost her fertility. Why is there no reference to the world’s mother goddess? In reality, this problem may actually have arisen because Korean myths have not been appropriately recorded and documented, and because of cultural differences between the East and West. The image of the “mother” is not reflected in cosmogony. Regarding the cosmogonic myths, the loss of the goddess’ fertility leads us to forget an important characteristic of the expression “mother goddess.” Indeed, this term is not necessarily derived from the process of giving birth to offspring. However, the question of whether or not the mother goddess’ function of “giving birth” is regarded as a fundamental characteristic of women, begs itself in the patriarchal myths of Korea. It is entirely possible for the mythical role of the mother goddess to have been forgotten due to the patriarchal mindset. It leads to thinking that the mother is passive, but the father is active in giving birth to offspring. So the father is the real cause for reproduction.
3. The discovery of female functions and sovereignty in Korean literature narratives and shamanic myths
Who is this being, the mother? The mother forms blood ties through her biological ability to give birth to a child, and forms social ties through her sociological ability to care for the child. This characteristic of the mother that does not appear in the Korean creation myths can be found in Korean heroic myths. 12 However, the problem is that the mother does not have any active character or any quality apart from being the “birth giver.” The mother cannot simply be evaluated based on her ability to give birth. In a patriarchal society, women have the primary goal of giving birth to, and raising, the son who will be the male heir. As such, the values that fit the goals of patriarchal society are idealized and internalized by women. For example, unmarried women are forced to embrace virginity, and married women to be virtuous. In particular, in the case of Korea, if a married woman was unable to give birth, she could be expelled from her marriage, for the reason that she had committed one of the Seven Valid Causes for Divorce.
In extreme patriarchal societies, there are many cases in which women are thought to be tools for childbirth. In Greek myths and tragedy, the idea that the goal of woman’s existence is childbirth is outright prevalent. Iason betrays Medeia, but still blames her, saying, “There should be some other way for men to produce children, and there should be no female sex. The mankind would have no trouble.”13 This reconfirms the reason why men marry women: childbirth. Hippolytos, son of Theseus, hears from a nurse that Phaedra is in love with him, and asks Zeus, “If you wished to propagate the human race, it was not from women that you should have given us this. Rather, men should have put down in the temples either bronze or iron or a mass of gold and have bought offspring, each man for a price corresponding to his means, and then dwelt in houses free from the female sex.”14 In Korean mythology, women are not regarded as evil, but its perspective sees them only as tools for continuing family heritage.
In Korean myths, there are many cases in which women are featured only in relation to the limited functions of childbirth. Who is “Woongnyeo”, Bear-Woman in the Myth of Dangun? She is a bear, but stays in a cave, away from sunlight eating only garlic and mugwort to become human. The bear wishes to become a human and endures hardship for a certain period of time by her own choice. However, the bear becomes a “female.” What can the bear do, after becoming a woman? Give birth to a child. However, unlike the bear’s wish to become a human, it is not something that the woman can select by herself. “Woongnyeo had no-one to marry, and prayed for a child every day under the Sindan tree. After Hwanwoong became a man, they were married and had a child; the child was called King Dangun.”15 Woongnyeo completes her role by giving birth to Dangun, son of Hwanwoong. There is nothing else that she achieves as a human, or as a woman. Furthermore, she obtains no unique qualities as a mother.
As for the myth of Jumong, there is room for interpretation regarding the role of the mother.
12 Won-Oh Choi, Preceding paper, 1-16.
13 Euripides, Medeia, 573-575.
14 Euripides, Hippolytos, 616-624.
15 Dae-Suk Suh, “Myth of Dan-Gun”, Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms, “Abnormal Record”(紀異) vol.1, The Myths of Korea, Jipmoondang, 1997, p. 20.
Yuhwa (柳花), a daughter of Habaek, is caught by Haemosu while playing with her sisters in a pond. However, Haemosu does not take Yuhwa to the heavens when he ascends. Habaek banishes Yuhwa for disgracing the family, and she is found by King Geumwa and stays in a royal villa. Yuhwa becomes pregnant from being under the sunlight and lays an egg, from which Jumong is born. Jumong is exceptional from birth, and regarded as dangerous by the sons of King Geumwa. When Jumong wants to head south to establish a nation, the mother Yuhwa selects a swift horse and the seeds of five grains, taking an active role—in other words, the role of the holy mother.16
Normally, the mother who gives birth to a hero in Korean mythology is an unmarried virgin.Usually, in the heroic myths, the father is a holy figure, while the mother is a human girl. In the majorityof them, the mother’s story usually focuses on giving birth to the hero. In reality, how Woongnyeo givesbirth to Dangun, or how Yuhwa gives birth to Jumong, takes up the major part of the tale of the mother.After being born from their mothers, the heroes grow up with the exceptional abilities that they inheritfrom their holy fathers, but the mothers are unable to play important roles. The mother of the hero onlyplays a biological role in giving birth to the hero, and is unable to actively accomplish the social role ofthe mother.Normally, the mother who gives birth to a hero in Korean mythology is an unmarried virgin. Usually, in the heroic myths, the father is a holy figure, while the mother is a human girl. In the majority of them, the mother’s story usually focuses on giving birth to the hero. In reality, how Woongnyeo gives birth to Dangun, or how Yuhwa gives birth to Jumong, takes up the major part of the tale of the mother. After being born from their mothers, the heroes grow up with the exceptional abilities that they inherit from their holy fathers, but the mothers are unable to play important roles. The mother of the hero only plays a biological role in giving birth to the hero, and is unable to actively accomplish the social role of the mother.
Moreover, the mother undergoes a rite of passage called “marriage” as they go through the process of pregnancy and childbirth. However, in the heroic myths, official tales of marriage are often absent. Usually, the virgin mother gives birth through “unofficial” methods of a holy figure or cause. Therefore, heroes often lack an actual or realistic fathers. In reality, the paternal authority often disrupts the potential desires of the son. However, many of the heroes either do not have fathers or are free from their fathers. The hero of Korean myths is an explorer of his own life, building on his sense of sovereignty and free will. He autonomously solves and overcomes all hardships and obstacles he faces in the real world. The hero does not require any being but himself. The hero is himself both father and son. He sometimes appears as the father of a nation, or as its founding monarch.
However, in the majority of heroic myths, the absence of the father does not emphasize the presence of the mother, nor does it converge or merge with the roles of the father. The mother, even in the absence of the father, still plays a passive role. These situations are similarly revealed in Western mythology as well. In the heroic myths of the West, the hero himself often becomes the father of his nation and people, regardless of the presence of his mother or father. In the father’s absence from a family, the mother does not take on his role. Even if the mother exists, the status of the father is inherited by his son. In these myths, the son with a holy father or with no father at all is simultaneously father and son. Therefore, as the mother is subordinated to the father, she is also subordinated to her son.
Unless the role of the mother, as we speak of it in our society, is properly fulfilled, it is difficult to establish the origins of motherhood in the ability to bare children, or the mere fact thereof. Giving birth to a child is insufficient in itself to become a mother, as she must also nurture and raise the child. In a patriarchal society, the mother’s core role is not to give birth, but to nurture and care for the child. Why is raising children prioritized in the mother over giving birth? In a patriarchal society, giving birth is an external phenomenon, but it is the father who “gives birth” to the child. In Korean society, the saying that the “father gives birth to children and the mother raises them” has been practiced unconsciously. Therefore, it would have been thought that the core role of the mother is to raise the child, rather than give birth to the child. In reality, the heroic myths do not bestow an important role on the mother, apart from the biological ability to give birth and to raise children. Mostly, the hero has the wisdom to overcome all hardship by himself. He, by himself, becomes a father and king. In these cases, the mother of the hero plays very few roles or often disappears from the myth altogether.
In Korean mythology, the archetypal image of the mother is expressed in the woman-bear myth appearing in the shamanic myths. We are able to observe the feminine values and principles that have led to the active development of a sense of sovereignty and the obtainment of transcendental characteristics, through her role and function as the mother, despite her passive life in patriarchal society. Myths of women contain stories of the role of the “mother” pertaining to her sociological roles, however passive, apart from the mother’s biological functions. We are able to study how the mother independently establishes her life within the limits forced on her by patriarchal society.
16 Dae-Suk Suh, “Myth of Jumong”, 『The Myths of Korea』, p. 26: Collected Works of Minister Yi of Korea, “King Dongmyeong”.
One defining characteristic of Korean mythology is that humans are able to become gods through hardship. In the Near East, Western, and Greek myths, humans can rarely become gods. Gilgamesh of Babylonia reflects on death and obtains an elixir plant to become immortal, but such efforts are eventually in vain. In the Greek myths, there are cases such as those of Heracles or Asclepios, who are born as humans but become gods, but these are extremely limited and have been glorified by later generations. However, in the tales from the Korean shamanic myths, there are often cases of human-born gods. In “Jeseok Bonpuri,” Maiden Danggeum is banished from her family due to an unwanted pregnancy, gives birth to children in a cave, and is glorified as a goddess. Maiden Danggeum becomes a heavenly angel for her sacrificial life of giving birth to fatherless children, who become the Sambul Jeseok(帝釋三 佛), who grant the wishes of all peoples. In “Princess Bari,” Bari leaves for Seocheon(西天, the world of the dead) to save her father who had abandoned her because she was born a girl and, through her hardships and overcoming of them, becomes a goddess who oversees the life and death of the world, as a woman who has sacrificed everything. Surely, when explaining the ontological rise from heroine to goddess, it is said that the woman was originally holy in nature, descended to the human worlds, and has returned. In other words, the goddess is originally a deity, becomes human to overcome obstacles and hardship, and then becomes a goddess again.
This paper has examined the characteristics of goddesses and the roles of mothers in Korean myths and folklores, in order to analyze their archetypal image of the mother. The uniqueness of Korean myths of the origin of the world is that the goddess is not exactly a mother goddess. Her appearance comes in the presence of a female god who has lost her fertility, and creates the world in procreation myths. In Western origin myths, the mother goddess is the source of life and the creator of all things; however, in those of Korea, the mother is not the source of “life,” but of “creations.” As such, it does not matter whether the origin of the world is a male or female god. Moreover, the role of the mother in Korean heroic myths and folklores is limited to her ability to bare children, and she does not display any active character or defining characteristics. In a patriarchal society, the purpose of women is to give birth and raise the male family heir. Moreover, most of the mothers in Korean heroic myths are unmarried virgins, become pregnant involuntarily, and are abandoned. The virgin mother undergoes enormous social criticism and pains to give birth to and raise her child and, owing to her heroic son, becomes a holy mother or receives godly blessings. Actually, these folklores are common features of maternal myths and ideologies. In the mothers in Korean myths and folklores, the archetypal image of the mother goddess is modified into a source of life. However, while these women passively accept lives as mothers, in a patriarchal society that oppresses women, they exhibit heroic strengths to overcome hardships and obstacles, and confirm their potential to develop a sense of sovereignty, within a limited range, through moral reflection and decision.
OTHER TIMES, OTHERMANNERS: HOW DODIFFERENT GENERATIONS USE SOCIAL MEDIA?
FIETKIEWICZ, KAJA J. & ET AL
HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY IN DUSSELDORF, GERMANY
INFORMATIONSCIENCE & LANGUAGE TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE
Ms. KajaJ. Fietkiewicz
Ms. KatsiarynaS. Baran
Prof. Wolfgang G. Stock
Information Science & LanguageTechnologyInstitute
Heinrich-Heine-University in Düsseldorf,
Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurial Finance Dept.
Heinrich-Heine-University in Düsseldorf,
Other Times, Other Manners: How Do Different Generations Use Social Media?
In our study we investigate the differences in social media usage between generations.Furthermore,we determine whether the rearegender-dependent inter-generational differences in user behavior.The outcomes of our investigation might be a valuable guide for businesses focusing on online marketing,social shopping,or e-commerce ingeneral,and desiring to reach the right target groups.
Other Times, Other Manners:
How Do Different Generations Use Social Media?
Kaja J. Fietkiewicz* Department of Information Science, Information Science and Language Technology Institute, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (Germany)
Katsiaryna S. Baran, Department of Information Science, Information Science and Language Technology Institute, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (Germany)
Elmar Lins, Riesner Endowed Professorship in Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurial Finance, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (Germany)
Wolfgang G. Stock, Department of Information Science, Information Science and Language Technology Institute, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (Germany)
Department of Information Science
Institute of Linguistics and Information Science
40204 Düsseldorf, Germany
Since the beginning of the new digital and information age, quickly evolving technology significantly changed our way of life and our means of communication. The Web, and in the meantime smartphones and other mobile devices, became an inevitable part of our everyday life. The younger generations already do not remember the times without mobile Web and online communication. Some of the most booming Web offerings nowadays are the so-called social media. In our study we investigate the differences in social media usage between generations. Furthermore, we determine whether there are gender-dependent inter-generational differences in user behavior.
Social Media, Millennials, Inter-generational comparison, Net Generation, Web
Around 1970 the developed world entered into the new age of information and digitalization. The quickly evolving Information and Communication Technology (ICT) significantly changed our way of life, leisure and, especially, our means of communication and information (Humbert, 2007). Since around 2000, one of the new trends characteristic for this new age are the so-called social media. Social media, or social software, are internet-based applications founded on the Web 2.0 allowing the creation and exchange of user generated content, as well as providing the possibility of creating micro-content focusing on social connections between people (Alexander, 2008; Kilian, Hennigs, & Langner, 2012; Leung, 2013; Shuen, 2008). It differs from traditional mass media focused on the one-to-many distribution of content from professionals to passive audience. Social software is based on many-to-many networks of active users sharing content among them, which fundamentally changes media user behavior (Kilian, Hennigs, & Langner, 2012).
Despite the name “social networks” or “social media” much of the user activity on social network services (SNSs) appears to be “self-focused” (Gentile et al., 2012). Furthermore, the younger generations of online media users exhibit narcissistic features that are either strengthened with (or first evolved due to) the new media like SNSs (Bergman et al., 2011; Kwon & Wen, 2010; Twenge et al., 2008a; Twenge et al., 2008b), or the online providers recognize the needs of the youngest users and offer services more and more self-centered. Also, generations growing up with the now ubiquitous communication technologies rely to a great extent on their mobile devices and the Web in order to cultivate their social contacts, as well as for educational or professional purposes (Salajan, Schönwetter, & Cleghorn, 2010). This dependence, and in some cases even problematic social media use (Cabral, 2011), differs from the older generation’s attitude towards digitalization, whose members partially integrated the new media in the later or more advanced stages of their lives.
Different generations, who are diversely labeled by researchers and marketing people, have different motivation for and manner of using the online media. New digital tools are slowly replacing the known, traditional means of communication. For example, key motivation for Generation Y (adolescent in the 1990s and 2000s) to use social media is the need for interaction with others. Apparently, users between 17 and 34 years old are more likely to prefer social media for interaction with friends and family than older age groups (Bolton et al., 2013; Palfrey & Gasser, 2008). Hence, considering the younger generations, social networks replace (or complement) the communication by letter, phone, or even email. Their use of text messaging is up while their email usage is down (Williams et al., 2012).
In our study, we conduct a broad analysis of social media usage, taking into account the influence of different life stages on user behavior. Furthermore, we take a look at intra-generational gender-dependent differences in social media use. All in all, we examine the motivation, frequency, and amount of social media used. Finally, based on our findings, we define whether there are distinct subgroups within the Generation Y, or if there is already a new generational cohort (Generation Z), too distinct to fall within the definition of this generation. We defined following working hypotheses that we tested through our study:
H1: The generations X, Y and Z differ in their social media use concerning the amount of social media adopted, the frequency of use, and the motivation.
H2: There are intra-generational differences in social media use dependent on specific stage of life within the generations Y and Z.
H3: There are gender-dependent differences in the social media use distinct for each generation.
2. Defining Generations
2.1 Changing User Behavior
In the last decades not only the technology has changed, but also the attitude and motivation of its users. The consumers transformed from passive bystanders (when the traditional media was controlled by the advertiser in a B2C-monologue) to hunters (consumer controls the interactivity), and further to active participants in the media process (consumers create, consume, and share messages) (Hanna, Rohm, & Crittenden, 2011; Williams et al., 2012). Li and Bernoff (2008) investigated the “ecosystem” of social media and recognized five different types of behaviors among the active participants. There are Creators focused on publishing, maintaining, and uploading, Critics (commenting and rating), Collectors (saving and sharing), Joiners (connecting, uniting), and Spectators (reading) (Hanna, Rohm, & Crittenden, 2011).
During research on social media it is important to consider the uses and gratifications approach, suggesting that the users actively choose the media that best fulfill their needs, and their choices are further based on past media experiences (Blumer & Katz, 1974). There are several factors influencing the choice of social media, like functional, situational and personal ones (Groebel, 1997; Kilian, Hennigs, & Langner, 2012). McQuail (2010) distinguishes four main motives for using media and communication technologies, namely information, personal identity, entertainment, and integration/social interaction (Kilian, Hennigs, & Langner, 2012). It is possible that these motivational factors are to some extent shared by the members of a distinct generation group. Hence, the motivation is an important aspect in our investigation to differentiate the generations.
2.2 From Silent to Net Generation
In our research we examine different generations and describe them as generational cohorts. The generational cohorts occur around shared experiences or events “interpreted through a common lens based on life stage,” rather than being based on social class and geography, hence, each generation shares a common perspective (Bolton et al., 2013; Mannheim, 1952; Sessa et al., 2007; Simirenko, 1966). There are many definitions of generational cohorts as well as estimations on the years their members were born in. According to Tapscott (1998), the generations should be categorized as the Baby Boomers, Baby Busters, and Echo Boomers (also called Net Generation or the Y Generation). Baby Boomers are people born between 1946 and 1964. Following that period of time, the birth rates fell dramatically in the next decade. This generation, born between 1965 and 1976, was called the Baby Bust (Generation X or Gen Xers). The Echo Boomers (labeled by other authors as Millennials or Generation Y) were born between 1977 and 1997 and can be best described as the “first generation bathed in bits” (Leung, 2013; Tapscott, 1998). Freestone and Mitchell (2004) describe the cohorts as Matures (1929-1945), Baby Boomers (1946-1964), Generation X (1965-1976), and Generation Y (1977-1993). McIntosh et al. (2007) pursued a little different categorization: Silent Generation (pre WWII), Baby Boom generation (1946-1962), Generation X (1963-1977), and Generation Y (1978-1986).
As we can see, some of the timespans correspond, whereas other are more fuzzy concepts—especially the deliberations on Generation Y. This is why, in our study, we will try to shed light on the very Generation Y and its (possible) successors. The Generation Y is also called the Digital Natives (Prensky, 2001), Net Generation (Oblinger & Oblinger, 2015; Tapscott, 1998), Echo Boomers, Net Kids (Tapscott, 1998), Gen Y (McIntosh et al., 2007), or Millennials (Howe & Strauss, 2000). The years of birth of this generation proposed in the literature vary between 1977 (Leung, 2013; Tapscott, 1998), 1978 (Martin, C. a., 2005; McIntosh et al., 2007), 1980 (Weiler, 2005), and after 1981 (Bolton et al., 2013; Brosdahl & Carpenter, 2011; Williams et al., 2012). The upper limit of the years of birth is also not definite—from 1986 (McIntosh et al., 2007) and 1988 (Martin, C. a., 2005), through 1993 (Freestone & Mitchell, 2004), 1994 (Weiler, 2005), 1997 (Leung, 2013; Tapscott, 1998), up to 2000 (Williams et al., 2012).
For the Net Generation, the technology is “as transparent as the air, diversity is given, and social responsibility is a business imperative” (Martin, C. a., 2005, p. 39). They are described as the most visually sophisticated of any generation (Williams et al., 2012, p. 127). For the Generation Y it is characteristic the early and frequent exposure to technology, which may have advantages as well as disadvantages in terms of cognitive, emotional and social outcomes, for example, when they rely heavily on technology for entertainment, to interact with others or even to regulate their emotions (Bolton et al., 2013).
They were born “right around the time of a qualitative leap in the nature of communications technologies which brought about the mass-consumer level usage of email, the Internet and the WWW” (Salajan, Schönwetter, & Cleghorn, 2010, p. 1393). Therefore, they feel comfortable with computers and they are more likely to be online consumers and users of social media rather than their parents or grandparents. They are conversant with a “communications revolution transforming business, education, health care, social relations, entertainment, government, and every other institution” (Leung, 2013, p. 998; Lenhart et al., 2007). Kilian, Hennigs and Langner (2012) contradicted the notion of Millennials being a homogenous group, as they identified three different groups/clusters with-in this cohort: (i) the Restrained Millennials showing lowest ratings for social media use in both active and passive behavior; (ii) the Entertainment-Seeking Millennials showing the highest mean ratings with regard to the passive use of social networks and file-sharing communities, and (iii) the Highly Connected Millennials, who are more likely than the representatives of the other groups to actively use social media in order to build social networks (Kilian, Hennigs, & Langner, 2012, p. 117f).
Another interesting finding is that the Millennials generation is apparently more narcissistic than the previous ones, which occurred alongside increased usage of social network services (Bergman et al., 2011; Kwon & Wen, 2010; Twenge et al., 2008a; Twenge et al., 2008b). The question arises, whether there is a connection between these two aspects (Bergman et al., 2011, p. 706). SNS appear to provide narcissistic individuals with the opportunity to display vanity, self-promote, gain approval and attention as well as to manipulate their public-image (Bergman et al., 2011, p. 709). Still, according to Bergman et al. (2011), the usage of SNS by the Millennials is not solely about attention seeking or maintaining self-esteem. It is rather a medium supporting communication with peers and family. The new generation simply prefers to connect and communicate via SNS instead of letter, telephone or email, hence, “this may not be a sign of pathology, but a product of the times” (Bergman et al., 2011, p. 709). Narcissists strongly desire social contact, which is their source for admiration, attention, and approval, even though they lack empathy and have only few close relation-ships (Bergman et al., 2011, p. 706; Morf & Rhodewalt, 2001). The motivation for using the social media, i.e. either communication with peers or outlet for narcissistic needs, may therefore be an important aspect to mark the inter- and intra-generational differences.
2.3 Generation X, Y and …?
Even though the media have existed from the birth of Generation Y (assuming it to be since the year 1981), they were widely adopted over two decades later (after 2003) (Bolton et al., 2013; Boyd & Ellison, 2008). Hence, there are possibly significant differences between members of the generation born in the 1970s, 1980s or even early 1990s, and these born in the late 1990s and 2000s. Assuming the members of Generation Y were born already in 1970s and 1980s, their children, born in the late 1990s and 2000s, were raised in a totally different environment—not only considering the ubiquitous technology, but also the frequent use of technology at home by their parents (being more familiar with digital gadgets as compared to Generation X).
Therefore, voices in the literature suggest the emergence of a subgroup within the Millennials, namely the Generation C born after 1990 (Booz & Company, 2010; Williams et al., 2012, p. 128). The members of Generation C are fond of content creating and mashing (mash up, i.e., combining content material from several sources in order to create a new content), they have a tendency to form active communities rather than remain passive, they desire to be in control of their own lives, they are content with complexity, desire to work in more creative industries and to be less restricted by rigid social structures (Booz & Company, 2010; Williams et al., 2012).
The most research on generational disparities is focusing on distinct subgroups (like high school students, college students etc.) that diverge in age and lifecycle stage, which in turn may lead to distinguished social media use as well. People born after 1994 are not always considered as a part of Generation Y, because teenagers use social media unlike the adults (Bolton et al., 2013; p. 257). The changes in user behavior occur more slowly than technological developments, since the usage patterns are partially habitual and sticky. Hence, the upbringing and education (i.e. socialization) have a profound influence on the future behavior (i.e. media use) as well (Kilian, Hennigs, & Langner, 2012, p. 114). It is possible, that the Millennials are not a homogenous group, and consists of subgroups with different social media user behavior (Kilian, Hennigs, & Langner, 2012, p. 115).
There is also evidence of intra-generational differences regarding social media users, based on environmental factors (including economic, cultural, technological, and political or legal factors) as well as individual factors, i.e. stable factors (socio-economic status, age, and lifecycle stage) and dynamic or endogenous ones (goals, emotions, social norms) (Bolton et al., 2013, p. 245). Even though our primary aim is to investigate the possible divergences of social media usage between generations, especially the Generation Y and its potential successor—Generation Z or Generation C, we did not fully refrain from including some socio-demographical factors that may also influence the outcomes.
For our study we created an online questionnaire, which was distributed through several online channels as well as “offline” through word-of-mouth advertising. There were two language versions of this questionnaire—English and German. Despite the overall inter-generational discrepancies, the nature and intensity of social media usage can be also shaped by cultural context, like the collective or individualistic one (Bolton et al., 2013; Hofstede, 2001). However, due to globalization the use of social media by the Generation Y may become more homogenous despite the different cultural roots (Bolton et al., 2013). Therefore, we did not set any geographical or socio-economic restrictions regarding our test subjects.
In the questionnaire we asked about the use of 13 social media services. We did not include further services to avoid frustration of the interviewees and breaking-off of the survey due to too many questions. We included the popular social network services Facebook, Google+, Twitter and Instagram, as well as the business social network services LinkedIn and Xing. In addition, we asked about further photo and video sharing services like Flickr, Pinterest, Tumblr or YouTube. Finally, we added a service characterized by a high amount of gamification elements—Foursquare, as well as some newcomers to the Web 2.0—the live video-streaming platform YouNow and service for sharing of the so-called “memes” 9gag. We did not include the typical consumer communication services like WhatsApp, Skype, Viber, or LINE, as it would go beyond the scope of this study (and require integration of too many possible services and, hence, questions about them). We included social network customized for business networking, LinkedIn and Xing, as we assume they will be utilized by most interviewees in certain life stage (most probably after the graduation), however, we excluded more specialized services for smaller target groups dependent on their career rather than age (like ResearchGate for researchers etc.).
In our questionnaire, we formulated 3 types of questions. The first one was a polar question about the use of certain services, e.g. Do you use Facebook? Dependent on the answer, two follow-up questions about the concerned service succeeded—about the frequency with which the service is used (e.g. How often do you use Facebook?) and about the motivation for using the service (e.g. In reference to Facebook, it is important to me that…). The inquiry about the motivation was adjusted to each service and included three sub-questions, for example, in case of Facebook, it is important to me that (i) I have a lot of friends, (ii) I get a lot of “likes”, (iii) my personal data is treated as confidential. The answers for frequency of usage and motivation questions could be marked on a 7-Likert scale, where “1” meant fully disagree (or in case of frequency—“almost never”) and “7” meant fully agree (or “I am always online”). Through these two questions we tried to investigate the different types of users introduced by Kilian, Hennigs and Langner (2012), including restrained users (rarely using few social media services), passive users (often utilizing several services, however, staying in the background), and finally the “highly connected” users that are active on many services (and seeking for high amount of likes and followers). The motivation for using a social media service, for example, the need for sharing personal photos and receiving many likes, may indicate some level of narcissistic behavior that could be also a characteristic aspect for certain generation groups. Technically, the quasi interval/metric characteristics of the Likert scale render it appropriate for hypothesis testing of mean responses and cluster approaches. This procedure is a common practice for a scale, since numerical values are assigned to the response categories and, thus, modeling equidistant intervals (Ary et al., 2009).
At the end of the questionnaire we included an open question—What other services do you use? This way we were able to partially include other services in our survey. The socio-demographic questions regarded gender, year of birth, country, and education (namely: still at school, university student, bachelor’s degree, master’s degree, doctoral degree, or others).
3.2 Statistical analysis
We consider two complementary analytic approaches. First, we use descriptive statistics to examine intergenerational differences in social media use and motivation for selected social media platforms. Therefore, we calculate two-sided t tests for generations X and Y by adapting relevant literature—for Generation X we adapted the birth years approx. between 1960 and 1980 (Wilson, 2010; Tapscott, 1998; Brosdahl & Carpenter, 2011; Freestone & Mitchell, 2004; McIntosh-Elkins, McRitchie, & Scoones, 2007), for Generation Y approx. between 1980 and 1996 (Leung, 2013; Bolton et al., 2013; Wilson, 2010; Tapscott, 1998; Brosdahl & Carpenter, 2011; Freestone & Mitchell, 2004), and for Generation Z, based on our estimation we defined the earliest year of birth to be 1996. Our t tests assessed whether the mean of a certain generation is statistically different from other generations. For instance, our analytic approach ex-amines the differences of the means between Generation X and the pooled observations for Generation Y and Z. We determined the significance of the differences between those three generations in terms of their usage of social media and motivation, followed by a conclusive inter-generational comparison.
Second, we propose a cluster solution to identify intra-generational differences for social media use, since the cluster analysis is an effective tool in scientific or managerial inquiry. For this study, the K-means clustering algorithm is applied. This method is widely used and it seeks for a nearly optimal partition with a fixed number of clusters. The K-means algorithm has been popular because of its easiness and simplicity for application (Kim & Ahn, 2008). We can implement the cluster analysis for a segmentation of Generation Y and Z. We do not use this approach for Generation X due to its relatively small number of observations. We believe that this might be a promising opportunity for further research. Finally, for each estimated generation group (X, Y, Z) we estimated the average frequency of social media use for each gender, in order to analyze the gender-dependent inter- and intra-generational differences.
This study was conducted from 13th of March to 23rd of May 2015. From total 430 participants, 373 completed the study (113 were male, and 260 female). Table 1 shows the inter-generational differences in social media use and sheds light on the motivation for and frequency of using them. By implementing two sided t tests that allow comparing different generations with each other, we find that Generation X is on average less likely to use Facebook compared to the younger generations. The negative value of -0.084 indicates the difference between the means of Generation X and the means of pooled Generation Y and Z towards their response to the use of Facebook. The difference is statistically significant at the 5%-level. Similar results can be observed for Instagram and 9gag. These results are in line with our expectations, since people born before 1980 can be described as digital immigrants, who lag behind with the usage of social media compared to younger generations. Surprisingly, Generation X is statistically more likely to use Twitter than younger generations. We can ex-plain these results with the more practical purpose of this short message service: Users of Twitter aim to share news or opinions about current events with little effort and efficiency. Younger generations might be more likely to use the full scope of more elaborated technical capacities to share information, e.g. via Facebook or YouNow. Also, Twitter is increasingly used for sharing political information, news, or re-search updates, which means that the user mostly follow and/or share with strangers, whereas the younger generations prefer to use social media to stay in touch with friends and peers. Furthermore, results for Generation X’s motive for using Twitter indicate that users born before 1980 are particularly interested in gathering followers and being re-tweeted. All results are significant at the 1% or 5%-level.
When considering the results for Generation Y, we can show that individuals born between 1980 and 1995 are more likely to use Facebook. This is in line with our expectations, as Facebook appeared in the mid 2000’s and became the first mainstream social media instrument for digital natives (Ellison, Steinfield, & Lampe, 2007). An explanation therefor could be that other generations either deliberately remain aloof to find their own and separate online platforms to communicate (e.g. Generation Z), or are reluctant due to Facebook’s complexity or the associated privacy issues (e.g. Generation X, see Prensky (2001)). Additionally, we find that Generation Y is statistically more likely to use Xing. This result is significant at the 5%-level and, respectively, at the 10%-level for the frequency of use. A high number of subjects born be-tween 1980 and 1995 might already be employed or actively seeking work. Given this background, the use of a business-oriented social network site appears comprehensible for digital natives. Further, the main motivation of Generation Y users seems to be both to enlarge the number of business contacts and the number of profile visitors. This motivation is more pronounced, in particular compared to Generation Y.
Symbols *,**, and *** denote statistical significance at the 10%, 5%, and 1%-level.
When now considering the results for generation Z, we can show the most significant differences for the use of Instagram and Xing. Individuals born after 1995 are statistically more likely to use Instagram, an online mobile photo- and video-sharing platform, than older generations. Generation Z not only perceives the Internet as a natural element in everyday life (similarly to Generation Y / digital natives), but also the use of digital mobile devices. Therefore, the latest generation can be described as mobile natives and significantly differs from former ones with regard to mobile social networking (Muminova, 2015). Moreover, individuals born after 1995 are on average statistically less likely to use Xing, which is a logical consequence of the fact that most of them are still at school. In sum, we verified the H1, as our statistical analysis has revealed inter-generational differences in social media use and motives between Generations X, Y, Z. Hence, our results serve to better understand the user’s intention to share and acquire content on social networking websites, particularly with regard to age-specific user preferences and behavior.
When adapting the cluster approach for Generation Y, we find three intra-generational groups with regard to different ages interpreted as different stages of life. The results are summarized in Table 2. The first cluster is on average the youngest (born around 1991). It exhibits, on the one hand, the highest frequencies of usage for Facebook, Instagram, 9gag and Youtube. On the other hand, this cluster is less frequently using Twitter. Overall, this group is highly connected and uses various kinds of social media channels regularly. Kilian, Hennigs and Langner (2012) called this type Highly Connected Millennials (see Section 2.3), who are the most active users of social media with the purpose to build social networks. Furthermore, this cluster exhibits similar traits to Generation C, which is born after 1990 and fond of content creating and actively forming communities (Booz & Company, 2010; Williams et al., 2012).
Intra-generational differences within Generation Y
The second cluster is the mid-aged group of Generation Y and on average born in 1988. This cluster shows medium frequency-levels of use for all social media channels except for YouNow, which is a live streaming video website. According to Kilian, Hennigs and Langner (2012), we might classify this cluster as the Entertainment-Seeking Millennials. This group is present on social media platforms, however, remains rather passive. Still, they exhibit high usage rates of various kinds of social media. The third cluster exhibits on average the oldest birth dates (born on average in 1986). Moreover, Table 2 shows the smallest frequency of use for Facebook, Instagram, 9gag and Youtube, and the highest frequency for Twitter. Again, according to Kilian, Hennigs and Langner (2012), this cluster shows similarities with the Restrained Millennials, who tend to exhibit the lowest ratings for social media use. It also appears that this cluster bears a certain resemblance to the findings for Generation X highlighted on Table 1. Hence, our findings might indicate that different ages interpreted as different stages of life affect the social media use, and a higher on-average age for Generation Y clusters incrementally increases the similarities with Generation X. Overall, we can conclude that the cluster solution indicates considerable intra-generational discrepancies in social media use.
It might not only be of interest whether the heterogeneous Generation Y can be clustered, but also whether initial tendencies towards a segmentation of Generation Z can also be observed. When adapting the cluster approach for Generation Z (Table 3), we are able to distinguish between two groups that have similar traits as Generation C (i.e. content creating and forming new communities). The first cluster is on average one year older compared to the second cluster and uses less frequently Facebook, Twitter, 9gag and Youtube. Differences in the use of YouNow and Xing are negligible. However, the first cluster exhibits higher frequency rates of using Instagram. This might be due to the growing trend towards mobile networking. This technological development occurred at the time when Generation Z distinguished themselves from the previous generations considering the Internet use. The higher the frequency of using Instagram, the younger are its users, which indicates the procedural phenomenon to strive for inter-generational differentiation.
Intra-generational differences within generation Z
Finally, we took a closer look at the gender-dependent differences in social media use. We set the focus of our investigation on the frequency of the usage. We analyzed the gender-dependent usage frequency for each generation – X, Y and Z (depicted in figures 1-3). Figure 1 shows the average frequency of social media use for generation X. It appears that the male representatives of this generation apply social media like Facebook and Youtube slightly more often than the female ones. Women, in contrary, more frequently use social media like Twitter, Instagram or Pinterest. Even though the differences in average frequency of usage for Twitter and Pinterest are minimal (just as for Facebook and Youtube), the female average frequency of use for Instagram is almost twice as high as the one of the male users.
Generation X: Gender-dependent average frequency of social media use.
In figure 2 we can see the gender-dependent differences within the generation Y. Here, the male users apply Facebook, Youtube and Instagram more frequently than the female ones, although the differences are rather small. Women, in contrary, use Twitter and Pinterest more often, whereas the difference in usage of Pinterest is the most distinct one (average frequency of use 2.5 for male, and 3.93 for female). In general, we can observe an overall decrease in use of Twitter (for both, male and female users) as well as a significant increase in use of Instagram (for male users).
Generation Y: Gender-dependent average frequency of social media use.
The gender-dependent differences in frequency of use within the generation Z are shown in figure 3. In this youngest generation, female users apply the most social media (with the exception of Youtube) more frequent than the male ones. Here, the biggest divergence is given regarding the average frequency of use of Pinterest (for male users with 1, and female with 3.66)
Generation Z: Gender-dependent average frequency of social media use.
In summary, we observe gender-dependent characteristics for the different generations. As for the social medium Pinterest, the average frequency of application was more or less constant for female users of all generations, whereas the frequency of use for male users declines significantly with the younger generations. In contrast, the average frequency of use for Instagram by the male users increases significantly, while the one by women remains rather constant. The average frequency of use for Twitter is declining with the younger generations, but for all generations female users are the ones using Twitter more often. The frequency of Youtube use increases, whereas male users of all generations apply it more often. Finally, the average frequency of use for Facebook is almost leveled regarding male and female users, however, only in generation Z female users utilize Facebook more frequently than men (although the difference is still minimal).
In this paper, we examined whether differences occur for the motivation for and frequency of social media usage from both inter- and intra-generational perspectives with regard to the heterogeneity of users’ life stages. Furthermore, we examined the gender-dependent differences of social media use.
We conducted a broad analysis to compare social media usage for Generations X, Y, and Z. The results indicate that social media users born between 1980 and 1995 and also before 1980 are more likely to use business-oriented networking services, which might be due to the facts that they found employment and are familiar with online networking. Their main motive to increase their contact numbers emphasizes their capability and willingness to use platforms such as Xing. Particularly for Generation X, older users are more likely to use social media for sharing business and political information, news, or research updates with strangers. Generation Y, on the other hand, is more likely to use a traditional networking platform, such as Facebook, in order to communicate and share information with friends. The youngest generation born in 1996 and later try to find their own individual path in social media use when turning their back on Facebook and moving towards more recently appeared social media platforms and channels, in particular the mobile photo-sharing network Instagram.
The differences in the tendencies of social media use from an inter-generational perspective are also observable on a smaller intra-generational scale, indicating evidence for an incremental development of social media use. When clustering Generation X and Y into subgroups, we cannot only see a heterogeneous overall picture, but also a diverse insight into the development of intra-generational changes. Strong similarities between the early Generation Y and Generation X are observable. Further, a slow and incremental shift away from Facebook towards Instagram can be seen for the late Generation Y and Generation Z.
Furthermore, there are inter- and intra-generational gender-dependent differences considering the frequency of social media use. While overall frequency of use of Pinterest or Twitter decreases with the younger generations, the frequency of use of Instagram increases. For the oldest generation the most significant gender-dependent difference was the use of Instagram (preferred by male users) and Pinterest (more often used by female ones). Within the generation Y, the gap between men and women in use of Instagram diminishes, whereas the differences in use of Pinterest become greater. As for generation Z, the use of Instagram is almost leveled for both genders, while the frequency of use of Pinterest is almost four times higher for female users.
Our findings are particularly interesting for businesses that use the popularity of certain social media platforms to support online transactions and user contributions to enhance the purchase of products or services. The determination of the correct target group for age-specific products or services is crucial for the success of a business. Players in the social commerce sector can focus on services mostly used by their (future) consumers. Knowing the frequency and motivation of their social media usage, they can prepare more suitable incentives for their products. This knowledge refers to the important marketing concept of relationship quality, indicating that an increase of relationship strength has a positive long-term impact on the business relation between service/product provider and customers.
After the online survey was completed, it came to our attention that the demographical aspects might indeed significantly influence the outcomes, especially, when the use of social media based on concrete services (like Facebook) is being investigated. A large number of participants indicated their use of further services being only popular in their respective countries or regions. This does not distort the results when the usage of a specific service, like Facebook, is intended. However, when assessing the usage of certain kind of services (e.g. social network services or video-sharing platforms in general), the regional differences and the possibly resulting in standard-dependent-user-blindness (Baran & Stock, 2015a; Baran & Stock, 2015b) should be taken into account.
Considering the fact that the social network services market is full of imitators (Baran, Fietkiewicz, & Stock, 2015), some regionally prevalent standards can be easily clustered into groups of similar services, e.g., Facebook and its Russian equivalent VKontakte are objectively very similar, however, due to the standard dependent user blindness they are used alternatively rather than cumulatively.
Hence, the limitation of our study is that given the broad demographical range of our investigation, we did not consider the regional standard services. For further studies of this kind we would advise to cluster services that objectively offer substitutable contents, e.g. Do you use Facebook and/or VKontakte? As for social commerce sector, we would advise not to underestimate “local” social network standards as platforms for exchange and consumer acquisition.
Since our empirical examination pursues the objective to holistically investigate different generations and various social media platform, we believe that a more focused investigation of a certain generation, a social media platform or motivation might be a promising opportunity for further research. Additionally, an examination of the interdependencies between applications of different social network services might also add to previous literature.
In our future studies we will include these lessons learned as well as pursue a more in-depth analysis of online behavior or Generations Y and Z.
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EDUCATIONAL IMPACT OF REUT (RESEARCH EXPERIENCES IN MATHEMATICS FOR UNDERGRADUATES AND TEACHERS) PROGRAM IN CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, CHICO
CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, CHICO
DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS.
Prof. Sergei Fomin
Department of Mathematics and Statistics
California State University, Chico.
Educational Impact of REUT (Research Experiences in Mathematics for Undergraduates and Teachers) Program in California State University, Chico
Within the last 11 years, we have completed three very successive REUT programs funded by NSF. Our programs targeted secondary teachers with a strong interest in mathematics or math education and students who have completed their junior year. The participants were engaged in research problems with a high potential for publication and to create a research experience that broadens participants’ perspective both of mathematics as a discipline and of research as an exciting exploratory process.
Educational Impact of REUT (Research Experiences in Mathematics for Undergraduates and Teachers) Program in California State University, Chico.
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, California State University, Chico, Chico, CA
Within the last 11 years, we have completed three very successive REUT programs (2004-2006, 2006-2010, 2012-2016) funded by NSF. Our program targets secondary teachers with a strong interest in mathematics or math education (RET) and students who have completed their junior year with coursework appropriate to the research project (REU). From both populations, we recruit members of underrepresented groups. Our program is designed to engage participants in research problems with a high potential for publication and to create a research experience that broadens participants’ perspective both of mathematics as a discipline and of research (whether mathematical or not) as an exciting exploratory process. By doing so, we hope to achieve the following specific objectives:
- Encourage undergraduate students, especially those from underrepresented groups, to pursue careers in sciences and engineering, including teaching.
- Help to better prepare students to pursue advanced degrees and careers in the sciences.
- Provide in-service teachers with a research experience that will foster excitement about mathematics, increase content understanding, and inspire pedagogical innovation in their classrooms.
- Promote and enhance mathematical research involving undergraduates at CSUC. We feel that both teachers and undergraduates benefit from working together on a research team. Participants develop connections not only with faculty but also with participants who have very different backgrounds, experiences, and career paths. Students have the opportunity to develop a direct relationship with a math educator; they benefit from the experience teachers have in communicating mathematical ideas and may be inspired to consider the possibility of teaching as a career. Secondary teachers also benefit from the experience of close contact with outstanding undergraduates and see firsthand what some of their current students will be doing in a few years. Both populations benefit from their complementary mathematical backgrounds, which allow them to help one another in their research exploration. A teacher’s broader mathematical experience can provide the insight to make a conjecture, while a student’s recent exposure to college-level mathematics could provide the specific tools to “make the epsilons and deltas work.” We provide a research experience that enhances the skills necessary for careers in any of the sciences, while adding both depth and breadth to the participant’s mathematical knowledge, skill, and understanding. The depth comes primarily from participation in a research team working on a potentially publishable research problem, while breadth is added by activities that integrate all research teams, by in-service teacher/undergraduate interactions, and by synergistic activities such as weekly research talks. Mathematical activities are supplemented with social activities conducive to creating a productive and comfortable research environment.
Within the current REUT grant we have completed the REUT summer programs in 2012- 2015 and obtained one year no-cost extension until April 2016. Prior to the current grant we had very successful grants that supported twelve participants for each of 2004 to 2010. Our program targets secondary teachers with a strong interest in mathematics or math education (RET) and students who have completed their junior year with coursework appropriate to the research project (REU). From both populations, we will recruit members of underrepresented groups. We include about three students from CSUC each year; the remainders are recruited externally. Teachers are recruited primarily from CSUC’s service region which is roughly the size of Ohio and contains over 650 schools in 165 districts.
Our program is designed to engage participants in research problems with a high potential for publication and to create a research experience that broadens participants’ perspective both of mathematics as a discipline and of research (whether mathematical or not) as an exciting exploratory process. By doing so, we achieve the following specific objectives:
- Encourage undergraduate students, especially those from underrepresented groups, to pursue careers in sciences and engineering, including teaching.
- Help to better prepare students to pursue advanced degrees and careers in the sciences.
- Provide in-service teachers with a research experience that will foster excitement about mathematics, increase content understanding, and inspire pedagogical innovation in their classrooms.
- Promote and enhance mathematical research involving undergraduates at CSUC. Both teachers and undergraduates benefit from working together on a research team. Participants develop connections not only with faculty but also with participants who have very different backgrounds, experiences, and career paths. Students have the opportunity to develop a direct relationship with a math educator. Students also benefit from the experience teachers have in communicating mathematical ideas and may be inspired to consider the possibility of teaching as a career. Secondary teachers benefit from the experience of close contact with outstanding undergraduates and see firsthand what some of their current students will be doing in a few years. Both populations benefit from their complementary mathematical backgrounds which enables them to help one another in their research exploration. A teacher’s broader mathematical experience can provide the insight to make a conjecture, while a student’s recent exposure to college-level mathematics could provide the specific tools to “make the epsilons and deltas work.” CSUC is an ideal location for hosting a combined REUT. The goals of the REUT mesh closely with CSUC’s mission statement, and hence there is strong institutional support for such a program. In particular, teaching is the institution’s primary mission and CSUC embraces a teacher/scholar model in which the main purpose of research is to improve the undergraduate experience. Through the initial grants the participating faculty have gained experience in directing summer research and seen that, not only does this add life to their own research programs, it also benefits our students and department. Inspired by their example, other faculty members are including students in their research projects. Moreover, our REUT plants the seeds for the future by providing our newest faculty members with the chance to work with undergraduates in their first few years at CSUC. In this way, continued funding of our site enhances diversity by simultaneously serving two NSF-defined underrepresented populations, namely, faculty and students at an undergraduate institution.
Another guiding mission for CSUC is teacher preparation and support of the K-12 community. Many high school mathematics teachers in CSUC’s large rural service area already have strong ties to the department and college. The majority of early-career teachers received their B.S. or credential at CSUC. The university is also a home to the Chico Mathematics Project (CMP), which is charged by the State with providing professional development for in-service mathematics teachers at all grade levels. In addition, CSUC has a Master’s program in mathematics education, populated entirely by in-service mathematics teachers who attend the program during three consecutive summers. Several of the fifteen teachers funded through the previous REUT grants have connections with these programs. In fact, three of the fifteen completed Master’s theses based on their REUT research and a third is an alumnus of our Master’s program. Thus, our REUT fits strongly within the teacher-scholar model and complements and extends the broad range of mathematical activities occurring in Chico during the summer.
Nature of Participant Activities
We provide a research experience that enhances the skills necessary for careers in any of the sciences, while adding both depth and breadth to the participant’s mathematical knowledge, skill, and understanding. The depth comes primarily from participation in a research team working on a potentially publishable research problem. The breadth is added by activities that integrate all research teams, by in-service teacher/undergraduate interactions, and by synergistic activities such as weekly research talks. Mathematical activities are supplemented with social activities conducive to creating a productive and comfortable research environment.
In both academic and industrial positions, scientists and mathematicians are expected to be able to think critically and independently and they are also expected to participate as part of a team. We believe that an REUT experience at CSUC allows participants to hone their own organizational, communication, and critical thinking skills while simultaneously learning how to work as part of a research group. Each summer we organize our REUT participants into three research teams, each of which will include one in-service teacher. Each participant is expected to work both individually and as a contributing member of his or her research team.
Team Activities: We help the participants progress from dependent learners to independent investigators by modeling and explicitly discussing Polya’s four stages of problem- solving: understanding the problem, devising a plan of attack, carrying out the plan, and reflecting on the work. Our activities are structured to facilitate the smooth progression from one stage to the next at a pace appropriate to the competence of each participant.
Following that model, in the initial stage, each research team leader offers a mini-course related to the team’s mathematical focus area. This allows the team leader to give participants relevant background material, introduce computer software, evaluate the competence of each participant, foster a supportive team environment, and in general ensure the group has the necessary tools to carry out the research project. The team leader concurrently introduces open research problems and students are encouraged to begin their own exploration right away. As a first step towards independence, the team selects their research problem. At this point they are given research/expository articles to read in order to better understand their problem. The articles are then discussed in a group setting. These informal discussions help the faculty member ensure that the whole team “understands the problem” and is thus ready for the next stage.
In the second stage, the faculty member takes a step back and gradually moves from group director to group member. The team is responsible for “devising a plan of attack,” which includes developing research directions and allocating responsibilities. The faculty member contributes to discussions and helps guide the group in fruitful directions without imposing his or her own ideas. He also ensures that each individual is contributing to the development of the team’s plan and has a reasonable share of the responsibilities in carrying out the attack. This stage culminates in a presentation of the team’s research problem and plan of attack.
In the third stage, the faculty member steps back even further. Having helped guide the group in the development of a plan, the faculty member now allows the group to carry out that plan with minimal assistance and acts primarily as an advisor as the team becomes self-sufficient and takes ownership of all aspects of their particular problem. Here, both teachers and undergraduates are confronted with their lack of experience in doing mathematical research. They can help each other to overcome this hurdle and learn to be independent mathematical explorers.
In the fourth and final stage the group “reflects” by jointly authoring a written report and preparing a presentation on their research including: a clear statement of their problem, their plan of attack, any obstacles which were encountered, results they obtained, and perhaps directions for further investigation. In this stage the faculty member’s role is primarily to give advice and answer questions that may arise. The reflective stage often continues after the term of the REUT as students work with their team leader to revise a manuscript for publication and prepare to present their research at professional conferences.
Synergistic Activities: Fostering an appropriate research environment is an important part of our program. A successful research team consists of participants who have the following characteristics: they are comfortable expressing their ideas, they aren’t afraid of looking foolish they feel they can disagree with other team members, and they know each other. Social interactions are thus an essential component of our REUT program. Space for all participants is reserved at special apartment style dorms on campus to facilitate ongoing unstructured social interaction. Social contacts are further cemented through a weekly series of lectures by prominent invited speakers, each followed by a dinner or reception, and some other social event such as a movie, bowling, or a visit to the Thursday Night Farmer’s Market.
We would like our participants to gain not only a deep understanding of a mathematical focus area, but also to develop breadth in their mathematical knowledge and experience. To this end we feel it is important for the three research teams to interact not just socially, but also mathematically. All participants are expected to attend talks given by other participants and the six-week term ends with a full group discussion of the experience.
The research environment at CSUC is particularly well suited to a research program for undergraduate students and teachers. There is a strong tradition of undergraduate research. In addition to serving as an REUT site since 2004, as a founding member of the MAA’s NREUP program we have hosted a total of fifteen undergraduate researchers from underrepresented minority groups since 2003. Local students also participate with funding from CSUC “Research and Creativity Awards.” Students from these programs have made numerous presentations at national and regional conferences and published several papers as detailed in our results section. Participants complete the program with a substantial written paper and make oral presentations to an audience that includes eminent guest speakers. Past guests include researchers like Robion Kirby of UC, Berkeley, Joel Hass of UC, Davis, and Konstantin Kornev of Clemson University, Laurent Pilon of UC Los Angeles, etc.
CSUC also has a strong tradition of externally funded and innovative programs for teacher preparation and professional development. The more than thirty teachers in our summer Master’s program are inspired by the example of Brooke Kennedy and Joel Pyzer who completed their Master’s theses based on research carried out during their RETs with us. The multiple multi-week summer institutes for over 100 teachers every year of the Chico Math Project provide another excellent venue for integration of the REUT into a broader range of mathematical activities occurring in Chico during the summer.
Recruitment and Selection
Normally, our summer projects are accessible to juniors and high-school teachers are also comfortable with this level of math requirement. Our experience shows that six weeks program is sufficient for participants to resolve a well-chosen research problem. At the same time, this time frame is short enough to accommodate high-school teachers who typically have shorter summer recesses. Our past students have been very active in publishing and presenting REUT results which demonstrate that the six week time frame has been successful. Moreover, faculty mentors are committed to providing mentoring during the following academic year. We are rather successful in recruiting participants from underrepresented groups as well as from colleges where STEM opportunities are limited. We are close to 50 percent participation both for women and underrepresented minority groups in our REUT.
In running the NREUP programs we have pursued several avenues for recruiting students from underrepresented groups including, for example, advertising our program at the web site of the Society for Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science. Our most effective recruiting tool is a direct appeal to undergraduates at nearby institutions such as UC Davis, UC Berkeley, and Stanford. To increase participation, we also directly approach our sister institutes such as CSU, Monterey Bay and CSU, East Bay that have a very diverse student body. We note that, as one of the founding sites of the NREUP program, CSUC has acquired a reputation as a summer destination for students from underrepresented groups such that faculty frequently refer minority students to us without specific efforts on our part. For these reasons, we are confident that we can carry through on our commitment to greatly increase the already healthy level of participation of women and minority students in our summer research programs.
By holding three positions each year for CSUC students, we also guarantee representation of another NSF-defined underrepresented group, namely students of an undergraduate institution. We regularly have a large proportion of our students from non- research institutes.
We have also had no difficulty in attracting qualified teachers to our program, receiving four applications for each available position. In recruiting teachers, we have taken advantage of CSUC being renowned as a summer destination for teachers through the Chico Math Project (CMP) and the summer Master’s program for in-service teachers. Each year we send applications to every teacher in the CMP database of 650 schools in our service area as well as all alumni and students of the Master’s program. As is clear from the comments above, past participants are also our best recruiters.
These specific recruiting efforts are complemented by a web site with information for prospective participants. To apply, students submit letters of recommendation from faculty members, transcripts, and a personal statement describing why they are interested in the program. Teachers are also required to submit statements and CV’s.
Intellectual Merit of REUT
In addition to facilitating the solution of research problems in mathematics we provide a model for the integration of research experiences of teachers and undergraduates. The program assessment gauges the success of this model by measuring not only the impact on career decisions of undergraduate participants, but also the major changes in participants’ perception of research in general and mathematics in particular. Methods for measuring this impact on participants’ mathematical world-view are of interest not only to the NSF, but to science and mathematics educators. As such, this program fits into CSUC’s strong tradition of externally funded and innovative programs for teacher preparation and continuing education in mathematics. Moreover, it builds on the department’s history of involving undergraduates in research.
Broader Impacts of REUT
This project supports two significant NSF guiding strategies. First, the integration of research and education is carried out at several levels. Not only are students involved in research, but also high-school teachers and CSUC faculty are provided with an example of how to integrate research activities into the teaching and learning of math. By structuring our program after Polya’s steps for problem solving we are disseminating an effective pedagogic approach to mathematics education. Second, the project also serves to broaden the participation of underrepresented groups through specific efforts to recruit women and underrepresented minorities.
Further, the REU/T at Chico will promote faculty research programs and also open avenues for the inclusion of undergraduates in those programs, thus simultaneously serving two NSF-defined underrepresented populations, namely faculty and students at an undergraduate institute.
The author would like to acknowledge the significant contribution of Dr. Thomas Mattman and Dr. Kathy Gray to the success of the program. The author would like to acknowledge the National Science Foundation for support of this project (NSF DMS Award # 1156612).
WORDS THAT SEEM TO DENOTE “PLACES” IN ENGLISH AND JAPANESE: ENGLISH PREPOSITIONSAND JAPANESE POSTPOSITIONS
SHINSHU UNIVERSITY, JAPAN
FACULTY OF ARTS.
SHINSHU UNIVERSITY, JAPAN
FACULTY OF ARTS.
Dr. Miki Hanazaki
Faculty of Arts
Shinshu University, Japan.
Prof. Kazuo Hanazaki
Faculty of Arts
Shinshu University, Japan.
Words that Seem to Denote “Places” in English and Japanese: English Prepositions and Japanese Postpositions
The usual dichotomy of “content” words and “function” words imply that prepositions and postpositions have only functions. This presentation would argue that such “function” words nonetheless have semantic meanings and English prepositions and Japanese postpositions differ in some respects, which is homologous to what Ikegami (1997) calls “do-language” and “become-language” respectively.
Words that Seem to Denote “Places” in English and Japanese English Prepositions and japanese Postpositions
Miki HANAZAKI and kazuo HANAZAKI, Faculty of Arts, and School of General Education, Shinshu University
1.This is a revised version of Hanazaki and Hanazaki (2009).
This paper deals with the English and Japanese words / morphologies that seem to denote static spatial positions. After analyzing what the central meanings for each linguistic item are, we will see that English prepositions and Japanese postpositions correspond “homologously” to what Ikegami (1981) argues as “do-language” and “become-language” respectively
preposition, postposition, homology, polysemy
“Homology” is a word coined around 16th century in biology, meaning that there is a similarity in structure. (cf. Ikegami (1999-2011), Hanazaki (2008)) Applying this notion to linguistics, recently, many studies on “homology” within languages or what Hawkins argues as “Cross-category harmony” (Hawkins 1982) have been conducted, Ikegami (1981) being one of the representatives. Ikegami (1981) explores many linguistic phenomena including motion verbs, causative, passive, X-is-Y construction (John is a student), and argues that although those linguistic phenomena are in different categories of language, i.e., vocabulary, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, etc., they are “motivated” (a la Langacker 1991) by a single motivation. With such observation, Ikegami (1981) classifies English as a “do-language”, i.e., a language which puts focus on the action part, and Japanese as a “become-language”, i.e., a language which puts focus on the result part.
The usual dichotomy of “content” words and “function” words imply that English prepositions (eg. Meg is “at” the park) and Japanese postpositions (eg. Megu-wa koen-“ni” iru , literal translation “Meg is at the park”) have only functions. This paper focuses on the English prepositions and Japanese postpositions that seem to denote a static position, i.e., English at, on, in, and Japanese ni, wo, de, and argues that such “function” words nonetheless have semantic meanings and that English prepositions and Japanese postpositions correspond homologously to “do-language” and “become-language” respectively as Ikegami(1981) argues.
This paper proceeds as follows; section one limits the scope of our study to three prepositions and three postpositions and shows the peculiarities of those words / morphologies; section 2 analyzes the English prepositions in question, i.e., in, at, and on; section 3 analyzes their Japanese counterparts, i.e., ni, wo, and de; and section 4 summarizes our arguments and further argues for the “homology” within the languages. Figure 1 depicts the flow of the arguments of this paper
1. The Scope of This Paper and the Peculiarities of the Words in Question
1.1. The Scope of This Paper
This paper deals with prepositions and postpositions that seem to denote static place in space. The following prepositions and the corresponding Japanese postpositions are considered to be the words / morphologies that seem to denote such spatial positions;
This paper deals with in, on, at and de, wo, ni. 2 all of which seem to depict the spatial
2 There is a possible argument that we should include by in the present study, for it seems to depict a static position in space. But Hanazaki and Kato (2003, 2004) have argued that the central meaning of by is
1.2. Peculiarities of the Words / Morphologies in Question
When we look at the data of the words / morphologies in question, we can find two peculiar traits in Japanese; (A) Wo, which seems to denote spatial position, can also be used to show the accusative; (B) De, which seems to denote spatial position, can also be used to show the instrument / material.
Let us start by looking at (A). As we can see in (5) and (6), wo can be used to show the spatial position as well as the accusative. On the other hand, in in English can never be used as an accusative marker, hence we can see that wo has some peculiarities lacking in the preposition in.
AS for (B), de, a morphology which seems to denote spatial position, also shows a peculiar behavior: De can denote a spatial position as well as instrument or material as can be seen in (7)-(9);
Some may argue that in, on are also used to show instruments as can be seen in on radio, in English, but as we have argued in Hanazaki (2006), this usage of showing instruments by in and on is restricted to narrow kinds of nouns. For example, in can only be used to denote
3 As we will come back in 3.3., ki-de tsukuru can also be translated as made “with” wood , an INSTRUMENT interpretation, according to the context the sentence is used in.
instruments when the LM is a language, ink or pencil and some others, hence we should consider the usage as idiomatic, not a usual usage. On the other hand, we can say that the high productivity of de as instruments is a very peculiar trait. From the following section, we will analyze the words / morphemes in question and try to answer why those two peculiarities in Japanese postpositions occur.
2. Analysis on the English Prepositions in Question
This section will analyze the three English prepositions in question and argue that all of them depict a spatial position of two things, i.e., TR and LM4 , which can easily be depicted with a figure. We will only briefly go over each preposition because the space is limited and detailed arguments of each preposition require a paper each. Section 2.1. explains the central meaning of in, section 2.2. takes up on, section 2.3. deals with at, and 2.4. summarizes the arguments on the three prepositions
2.1. The Semantics of In
Cobuild gives the following as the samples of in;
(10)In According to Cobuild
a. <‘In a container’> He was in his car.
b. <‘happens in a place’> spending a few days in a hotel
c. <‘present in a place’> My flatmate was in at the time.
d. <‘come in, enter a place’> She looked up anxiously as he came in.
e. <‘has arrived at a place’> Look. The train is in.
f. <‘moves towards’> If the tide was in they went swimming.
g. <‘just behind the window’> There was a camera for sale in the window.
h. <‘wear something’> three women in black
i. <‘the thing is over or round the surface’> His legs were covered in mud.
j. <‘crack or hole is on its surface’> There was a deep crack in the ceiling.
There should be little controversy in saying that the core meaning of in can be depicted as in Figure 2.
4.TR=Trajector=profiled entity, LM=Landmark=reference point for the TR (cf. Talmy 1978, Langacker 1987)
The possible controversial usage in (10) may be (10j); some might argue that TR is not IN the LM but ON the LM, but we can argue that the ceiling is a two dimensional space and that the crack is within that space. (Cf. Hanazaki and Kato 2009)
2.2. The Semantics of On
We have elsewhere (Hanazaki and Hanazaki 2008) handled the semantics of on, so for detailed arguments on on, please refer to Hanazaki and Hanazaki (2008). (11) is the list that Cobuild gives as the examples of on;
(11) On According to Cobuild (The list being long, we will only list the first 20
a. <‘on the surface’> He is sitting beside her on the sofa.
b. <‘attached to the surface’> There was a smear of gravy on his chin.
c. <‘supported by the surface’> He got his jacket and dropped it on the sofa.
d. <‘supporting your weight’> He continued to lie on his back.
e. <‘touches a part of’> He leaned down and kissed her lightly on the mouth.
f. <‘face has a certain expression’> a nervous smile on her face
g. <‘wear something’> I had a hat on.
h. <‘carrying it in your pocket or bag’> I didn’t have any money on me.
i. <‘stare at something’> Everyone’s eyes are fixed on him.
j. <‘hit a part of one’s body and causes damage’> Mr. Pendle hit his head on a wall.
k. <‘someone is there’> You lived on a farm.
l. <‘be a part of, by the side of’> The hotel is on the coast.
m. <‘travel in it’> I never go on the bus into the town.
n. <‘something is written or printed’> The numbers she put on the chart was 98.
o. <‘included in a list’> I’ve seen your name on the list of deportees.
p. <‘concerned with a subject’> He declined to give any information on the Presidential election.
q. <‘introducing a method’> a television that we bought on credit
r. <‘done using the instrument’> I could do all my work on the computer.
s. <‘the way it is stored’> Right, we’ve got that on tape.
Looking at the above examples, we can confidently argue that on depicts the spatial relationship between TR and LM and that the TR is on the surface of LM and the LM supports the TR as can be depicted as Figure 3;
5.Cobuild lists 42 meanings. For those meanings that we do not cite here, please refer to Cobuild
2.3. The Semantics of At
Cobuild gives the followings as the samples of at;
(12) At According to Cobuild
a. <‘the place something happens’> We had a dinner at a restaurant.
b. <‘someone goes to school to study’> I majored in psychology at Hunter College.
c. <‘next to something/one’> An assistant sat at a table beside him.
d. <‘at a certain distance’> The two journalists followed at a discreet distance.
e. <‘particular time when something happens’> at 3:00
f. <‘particular age’> Blake emigrated to Australia with his family at 13.
g. <‘rate, level, price’> custom-designed rugs at $16 to $100 a sq. ft.
h. <‘indicate a measurement’> weighing in at eighty tons
i. <‘look towards’> He looked at Michael and laughed.
j. <‘smile or wave at someone’> We waved at the staff to try to get the bill.
k. <‘move one’s arm /head to be noticed’> He gestured at the shelves.
l. <‘deal with, try to achieve’> She has worked hard at her marriage.
m. <‘do as a result’> She left the light on at his request.
n. <‘someone/thing is in a particular state’> I am afraid we are not at liberty to disclose that information.
o. <‘someone/thing has more of a particular quality’> He was at his happiest whilst playing cricket.
p. <‘how something is being done’>Three people were killed by shots at random from a minibus.
q. <‘done repeatedly’> Miss Melville took a cookie and nibbled at it.
r. <‘indicate an activity or task’> I’m good at work.
s. <‘something that someone is reacting to’> Six months ago she would have laughed at the idea
If we are to decide the central meaning from the above examples, we can say that at indicates that TR and LM coincide in space, which can be depicted as Figure 3;
Let us see how we explain the seemingly most “troublesome” usage, i.e., (12g), if we suppose that the central meaning of at is as in Figure 4. We can say that the TR (price) coincides with LM, i.e., a point in the scale of price ($16). Hence the TR and the LM overlap with each other.
2.4. The Semantics of the English Prepositions in Question
Section 2 has analyzed the usages of in, on, and at by citing Cobuild and has argued that all of the three denote a spatial relationship between two entities of TR and LM within a boundary, or in a supporting relationship, or in a spatial relationship that overlaps each other. In other words, we can say that all of them depict a relationship of two entities which have boundaries.
3. The Analysis on the Japanese Postpositions in Question
This section will analyze the three Japanese postpositions in question and argue that although, on the surface, they and their English counterparts seem to denote the similar meaning, i.e., static position, they differ completely from the English counterparts in that they do not denote a spatial relationship of two entities that have spatial boundaries. Section 3.1. takes up ni, section 3.2. investigates wo, we analyze de in section 3.3., and lastly, 3.4. summarizes our arguments on the three postpositions.
3.1. The Semantics of Ni
The following (13) is the list of the usages of ni by Sugai (2007).
We can find a pretty large amount of literature on the semantics or the usages of ni. The attested central meaning or the central usage of ni differs from study to study; to cite some few, according to Horikawa (1988) it is <‘goal’>, Kunihiro (1986) argues that to be <‘contact’>, and Asari (2001), Oka (2005), and Nakau and Nishimura (1998) say that it is <‘position in space’>. However, arguing that the central meaning is <‘goal’> will not be able to explain why ni can denote <‘goal’> as well as <‘starting point’> as (14) and (15) show; and also arguing that ni denotes a point in space does not give answers to what the difference between ni and wo or de is, all of which seem to denote a spatial position as we have seen in (1)-(4).
Ikegami (1999) is suggestive on this phenomenon. He argues that the central meaning of ni is <‘goal of motion’>. This might be considered as an oxymoron in that motion, by definition, does not have a starting point or a goal unlike action. (i.e. Swim or climb are motion verbs which show how the move is made, while action verbs such as kick and hit can denote an action which has a starting point and an end point.) Through analyzing the ni which is used with motion verbs such as (13b), i.e., ni is used with noboru “climb”, which is a motion verb,
he argues that ni denotes <‘goal of motion’>. In other words, his argument says that ni defines a
goal of an event which does not normally have an end.
Following Ikegami (1999), we argue that ni has the meaning of <‘goal of motion’>. We argue that supposing ni indicates <‘goal of motion’> can give an explanation to (14) and (15). Sure enough that the book in question moves from you to me in (14) and (15). However, the usage of <‘starting point’> occurs only with certain verbs, such as kariru (borrow), nagurareru (be hit) and hantaisareru (meet with the oppositions of), all of which have corresponding verbs of kasu (lend), naguru (hit) and hantaisuru (say oppositions to). When using the first pairs of verbs, ni allows only the <‘starting point’> meaning, while in the corresponding verbs, we would never be able to have a starting point usage; the ni’s in –ni kariru (borrow), -ni nagurareru (be hit), and –ni hantaisareru (meet with the oppositions of) denote only a <‘starting point’>, while their counterparts, i.e., -ni kasu (lend), -ni naguru (hit), -ni hantaisuru (oppose to) only shows the <‘end point’>. So, we can say it is the verbs that decides whether ni denotes the <‘end point’> or the <‘starting point’>. In other words, ni, itself, does not have two meanings. If so, what does ni mean? To this, we would argue that it is the <‘goal of motion’> meaning, not the <‘starting point’> that ni means. If we look from the speaker’s standpoint in the usage of <‘starting point’>, there is a certain peculiar situation at hand, where through a “mental scanning” (Langacker 1990), the speaker searches for the goal of the mental scanning, i.e., the lender, hitter, and opposer. In other words, if we see it from a certain perspective, the TR of the <‘starting point’> usage can be considered as “goal” of mental scanning.
With the above observation, we can argue for the validity of claiming that the central meaning of ni is <‘goal of motion’>.
3.2. The Semantics of Wo
Wo is very unique as we have seen in 1.2., that it seems to denote the accusative as well as a point in space. This fact has led many previous studies to argue that wo has two meanings; Yamada (1908, 1936), Kato (2006), and Hashimoto (1969), for example, have argued that wo has two meanings of accusative and place.
We believe that regarding the central meaning of wo as <‘path of motion’> is viable and this way of thinking can explain all the usages of wo listed in (16). (16) is the list of usages of wo by Kato (2006);
Looking closely at (16d) will give us a good insight on the central meaning of wo. Although Kato (2006) labels the usage of (16d) as <‘leave from’>, he is aware that we cannot use kara, the most prototypical postposition to indicate the starting point, in (16d). (cf. kare-“kara” hon-wo kariru, borrow a book “from” him) This fact can be easily explained by arguing that wo indicates the <‘path of motion’>, not the starting point. In fact, the sentence Tokyo-eki-“kara” hassha-shita (The train let “from” Tokyo-station) is completely acceptable because Tokyo Station is the first station. On the other hand, Oomiya-eki is the second station, and we cannot use the word in the same sentence as (16d) shows. In other words, wo indicates the <‘path’>.
The validity of this argument can be doubly checked by the fact that the Rainbow Bridge is considered a point within the path in (16f) and the sky in (16g) is the domain that the flying object traverses.
As for <‘complement accusative’>, (16c), although this is named in such a way, the noun that serves as the object of the verb is completely different from the English counterpart. In English, accusative means the object towards which the action is directed; in John hit Mary, Mary is considered as the goal of the action of hitting. However, in (16c), the box is not the goal that the action of taking out is directed to, rather, box is something that the agent is carrying out the action WITH, and the agent will put the box in the intended goal. This line of argument is strengthened if we translate (16c) into English; if we use “box” as the direct object of the verb as in I took the box, it would mean something completely different. We need “out” if we are to translate (16c) into English. Hence we can say that the object of the verb indicated by wo is not the goal that the action is directed towards, as is the case with the accusative noun in English sentences, but rather something with which the action is taking place towards the goal, hence in a sense related to <‘path of motion’>.
The above argument leads us to conclude that wo indicates the path of motion.
3.3. The Semantics of De
De is highly polysemous as (17) shows;
The fact that de is highly polysemous has led many previous studies to conclude that the central meaning of de is <‘place’> (eg. Mabuchi (2000), Moriyama (2004)), or even as meaningless (Kato (2007)). As Ikegami (1999) says, the etymology of de is nite, a morphology most typically used to denote place (koen-“nite” asobu, play “at” the park), there is a reason to argue that the central meaning of de is place. However, defining de as place does not differentiate it from other morphologies such as nite. Rather, we argue that the central meaning of de is <‘picking one from the context’>.
(17a, b, c, d, f, g, h, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s) can all be thought of as <‘picking one from the context’>; there are many possibilities for venue, but USA was chosen as the venue in (17a) <‘place’>, there can be many other reasons to go to Osaka, but this time on business in (17p) <‘reason’>, and you can listen to the music at any loudness, but a small sound was chosen in (17r) <‘condition’>. The usage of <‘material’> in (17k) is related to <‘reason’>, for the TR’s in both cases are the result that accrued from LM, hence we can say that <‘material’> ≒ <‘reason’>. And the interpretation of whether the LM is the <‘material’> or <‘instrument’> depends on the context; when the LM is manufactured into something, it will be thought of as <‘material’>. If the LM is not transferred into something, on the other hand, it will be understood as <‘instrument’>; Bo-de tsukuru (make with/from stick) can be interpreted either as an instrument or material depending on the context. From these observations, we can argue for the following relationship of <‘place’>≒ <‘reason’>, <‘reason’> ≒ <‘material’>, <‘material’> ≒ <‘instrument’> and all the seemingly unrelated usages can be all summarized as <‘picking one from the context’>
3.4. The Semantics of the Japanese Postpositions in Question
Section 3 has analyzed the usages of ni, wo, de and has argued that each denote, <‘goal of motion’>, <‘path of motion’>, and <‘picking one from the context’>. All of the three denotes a point in an unbounded entity. In other words, we can say that all of them depict a relationship of two entities which do not have boundaries. And unlike the three English prepositions that we could easily depict in figures, it is impossible to depict the unboundedness in a figure. If we summarize the arguments in section 3, it will be as Figure 6.
4. “Homology” within Languages
Hawkins (1980, 1982) argues that there is a “cross-category harmony” in language: one single cause may explain many different linguistic phenomena. This idea is close to what Panofsky (1957) and Guiraud (1971) argue as “homology”, or what Sapir (1921) argues as “basic plan” or “genius” within languages. (cf. Hanazaki (2008))
Passives have attracted much attention in the literature and the two interesting phenomena involving passives are (i) a passive and its “corresponding” active do not always mean the same thing; and (ii) there are passives that do not have “corresponding” active sentences, and vice versa. Ikegami (1981) argues that passives and actives are not “corresponding” sentences, but that passives, which are often used in Japanese, are those that refer to the result state of an action, while the active voice sentences, which English uses more often than Japanese, are those that refer to the action of an event.
Based on the “ba”-theory, Ikegami (1981) argues that there are two kinds of languages; do-languages and become-languages, each of which put focuses on the action part and the result part respectively. Looking closely at active and passive voices, he argues that English, in which active voice is used more than passive voice, is a do-language, while Japanese, which uses passive more and hence focuses more on the results, is a become-language.
This paper has analyzed the words / morphologies that seem to denote the static position in space in English and in Japanese, namely, at, in, on in English and ni, wo, de in Japanese, and has seen that the English words denote the spatial relationship of two distinct entities that have boundaries on their own, while Japanese ones denote a relationship of entities that do not have any boundaries. And, as we have seen in 3.1., action is related to boundaries, while state is related to unboundedness. (cf. action is an event that has the beginning point and the end point, which differs from motion in which there is no boundaries or starting / end point)
We have analyzed prepositions / postpositions, and we briefly looked at passive and active voice. A mere observation on these two phenomena lends support to the argument that different linguistic phenomena are explainable by one “basic plan” of the language. More specifically, we can see that both in passives / actives and words that seem to denote static spatial position, English focuses more on things that have boundaries in themselves, while Japanese focuses more on the unbounded entities, i.e., the result “state” or the motion and context. There are more phenomena other than those handled in this paper which are motivated by this “basic plan”, but we cannot take them up because of space constraint. We conclude this paper, following Ikegami (1981), by arguing that English is a do-language, while Japanese is a become-language in many linguistic categories, i.e., “cross-category harmony”.
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COCA- Corpus of Contemporary American English
DEVELOPMENT OF COMPOUND NUMERALS IN ENGLISH BIBLES, LETTERS, DIARIES AND DOCUMENTS
KANSAI GAIDAI UNIVERSITY, JAPAN
FACULTY OF FOREIGN STUDIES
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE
Prof. Isao Hashimoto
Department of English Language
Faculty of Foreign Studies
Kansai Gaidai University,
Development of Compound Numerals in English Bibles, Letters, Diaries and Documents
My objective is to investigate the processes underlying the shift from the Old English type to the Modern English type of compound numerals 21-99. Data are collected from diaries, letters, other literature including the Bibles mainly in the early Modern English periods.
Development of Compound Numerals in English Bibles, Letters, Diaries and Documents
Isao Hashimoto Kansai Gaidai University, Japan
There have been three basic patterns for compound numerals from 21 to 99 in the history of English. These types can be exemplified as follows, the Old English type “one and twenty”, the early Modern English type “twenty and one” and the Modern English type “twenty-one”. Rissanen (1967: 30-32) states that “it seems that at least in some of these ME instances (i.e., twenty (years) and one) the construction was primarily caused by the demands of poetic diction”; and he also claims that “ … it is not impossible that the early type ‘twenty and one’ was a pred ecessor of the modern ‘twenty-one’, which comes into use at the end of the ME period.” Schibsbye (1977: 112) points out that the modern type “appeared at the end of the 15th century, when French influence was strong … .”
Schibsbye’s statement about French influence contradicts Wagner and Pinchon’s statement (1962: 107). They claim that in the classical period, i.e., from 1600 to1700, the middle type was common in French, that is, the units were still combined with the tens by et. On the other hand, as Rissanen and Schibsbye observe, the Modern English type had already appeared in English by the end of the ME period. This suggests that the Modern English type occurred earlier in English than in French and that this occurrence should be attributed to factors which differ from those that influenced the development in French.
My objective is to investigate the processes underlying the shift from the Old English type to the Modern English type via the early Modern English type, to explore the origin of the early Modern English type and to shed new light on the history of the Modern English type. Data from diaries, letters, other literature including the Bibles in the Middle English and the early Modern English periods will be used for the purpose.
Development of Compound Numerals in English Bibles, Letters, Diaries and Documents
Isao Hashimoto Kansai Gaidai University, Japan
There have appeared three basic patterns for compound numerals from 21 to 99 in the history of the English language. The first is a type like one and twenty, which was used mainly in the Old English (hereafter, OE) period, the second is a type like twenty and one, which was used mainly in the late Middle English (hereafter, late ME) and the early Modern English (hereafter, early ModE) periods, and the last is a type like twenty-one, which is used in the Present-day English (hereafter, PE) period. The first type will be called “the OE type, ” the second type will be called “the middle type” and the third type will be called “the modern type” according to Hashimoto’s nomenclature (2012: 49).
Rissanen (1967) states about the origin of the middle type as follows.
It seems that at least in some of these ME instances the construction was primarily caused by the demands of poetic diction (cf. Tietjens, p.15). But it is not altogether impossible that the early type ‘twenty and one’ was a predecessor of the modern ‘twenty -one,’ which comes into use at the end of the ME period ,
(Note: “the construction” in the senten ces refers to twenty (years) and one.) (Rissanen, 1967: 31-32)
On the other hand, Schibsbye (1977) points out about the modern type as follows.
“The present-day type: twenty-one, etc. appeared at the end of the 15.c., when French influence was strong (Caxton even has sixty and eleven (cp. soizante onze)). ” (Schibsbye, 1977: 112)
This statement by Schibsbye about French influence contradicts the following statement by Wagner and Pinchon (1962).
“A l’époque classique on coordonnait encore les unités aux dizaines au moyen de et, comme c’étai l’usage en ancien français. Corneille, dans sa comédie la veuve (Au lecture), écrit les vingt-et-quatre heures.” (Wagner and Pinchon, 1962: 107)
Wagner and Pinchon claim about French compound numerals that the middle type was common in the classical period, that is, from 1600 to 1700, and that the units were still combined with the tens by et. If their statement is right, the modern type occurred in English much earlier than the modern type in French, without the influence of French.
Mitchell (1985) suggests Latin influence on the middle type and the modern type in OE, as follows.
Occasional exceptions occur in the glosses under Latin influence, e.g. MattPref 8. 2 tuoentig feuer aldra, Latin uiginti quattuor seniorum and John(Li) 2. 20 feortig 7 sex, Latin quadraginta et sex. (Mitchell, 1985: 219)
As stated by the various scholars, processes of the changes of the compound numerals are controversial. But it is clear from their statements that though the English compound numerals have some opaque linguistic processes in their history, their dramatic changes occurred during the periods from Late ME to early ModE. Furthermore the Latin influence on the English compound numerals should be taken into account.
My purpose in the present paper is to collect data from Bibles, letters, diaries and documents mainly in the Early Modern English Period and to give light to processes in the history of the English compound numerals.
2. Corpora Investigated
Data to accomplish the purpose will be collected from the following literature
I. Old English period
1. OE Version of the Heptateuch (The) = OEH
II. Middle English period
1. Early Wycliffite Bible (The) = WB
2. Apology for Lollard Doctrines, Attributed to Wicliffe (An)= Apology
3. Altenglische Legenden: Neue Folge Mit Einleitung und An merkungen = Neue Folge
III. Early Modern English Period
1. Tyndale’s Pentateuch = TP
2. Tyndale’s New Testament = TN
3. Bishops’ Bible (The) = BB
4. Rheims-Douay Bible (The) = RB
5. King James Bible (The) = KJ
6. Autobiography and Diary of Mr James Melville (The) = Autobiography
7. Body of Divinity (A) = Body of Divinity
9. Lincoln Diocese Documents, 1450-1544 = Lincoln Diocese
10. Paston Letters and Papers of the Fifteenth Century = Paston
11. Political, Religious, and Love Poems = Political
12. Tundale = Tundale
Numerical expressions found in the data are to be classified into the following four types A to D.
Type A1 : xxi or ixx, where Roman numerals are used without and between the tens and the units, will be called, here, ‘Roman numerals’. e.g., .vxxx. geare (OEH, Genesis 11:12), “.xxxv. yere (TP, Genesis 11:12).
Type A2 : xx and i or i and xx, where Roman numerals in the tens and the units are combined with and, will be called, here, ‘Roman numerals with and.’ e.g., .iiii.┐.xxx. geara (OEH, Genesis 11:16).
Type B1 : twenty and one or one and twenty, where numerals in the tens and the units are expressed by English words and they are combined with and, will be called, here, ‘wordnumerals with and.’ e.g., seofan & twentig (OEH, Genesis 23:1), fyue and thretty winter (WB, Genesis 11:12), two and seuenty disciplis (Apology: 31), seuenty and two disciplis (ibid.), thirtie and foure yeres (BB, Genesis 11:16).
Type B2 : twenty(-)one, where numerals both in the tens and the units are expressed by English words without and between the tens and the units, will be called, here, ‘word-numerals.’ e.g., seuentie six (RD, Numbers 26:22), two hundred and thirty two (KJ, 1 Kings 20:15).
Type C: twenty and i or i and twenty, where a numeral in the tens is expressed by an English word, a numeral in the units by a Roman numeral, and they are combined with and, will be called, here, ‘mixed numerals.’ e.g., nynetye and .v. (TP, Genesis 5:17).
Type D: This type include s the following D1 and D2, which are both called socre-numerals.
Type D1 : two score and one, where the word score is used to express a group or set of twenty. e.g., foure score and eiჳt (WB, 1 Paralipomenon = 1 Chronicles 25:7), thre score & sixtene soules (TN, Atcts 7:14). Type D1 includes an example, where the units are expressed by Roman numerals. e.g., iiij. score and v. thousinde (WB, Isaiah 7:20)
Type D2 : ii x xi, where score is expressed by Roman numerals in supersubscript ‘ xx.’ e.g., iii x x vj vnc. (Paston: 159), iiij xx xviij vnces (Paston: 211).
3. Analysis of the Data
Hashimoto (2012) deals with data only on word-numerals in eight English Bibles from the ME period to the early Modern English period, the Latin Bible called the Vulgate , and the Hebrew Bible . He analyses them and states about the English middle types that “the Hebrew middle type and the Latin modern type played an important role in inducing the English middle type, which accelerated the occurrence of the modern type in the English Bibles” (op. cit.: 56). He also states about the modern types that “the origin of the modern type in the English Biblical translations is traceable to the Latin modern type in the Vulgate ” (ibid.). Though he gives us the valuable data and information, he does not deal with the types A1. A2, C and D. The present paper will discuss all the types A to D on the basis of the data collected from the corpora I to III.
At first we will survey processes of the changes of the compound numerals in the English Bibles. Compound numerals were collected from the twenty-seven books (Genesis to Daniel) in the Old Testament, except in the case of Tyndale’s Pentateuch and the OE Heptateuch. The numbers of the examples in the OE Heptatpeuch are much small er than those of the other Bibles. This is because many parts of the MS. are lost. Table 1 shows types of the numerical expressions in the Bible s according to our classification. The table reveals useful historical facts.
In OE were used Roman numerals with or without the conjunction and between the units and the tens, and the tens follow the units.
(1) .vii.xx. gear. (OEH, MS. C, Genesis 23:1. Cf. Lain: vingiti septem)
(2) .iiii. & .xxx. (OEH, Genesis 11:16. Cf. Latin: triginta quattuor)
Word-numerals were also used usually with and between the units and thetens in OE, though the corresponding Latin numerals are expressed by themodern type in the Vulgate.
(3) fif 7 feowtig (OEH, 18:28. Cf. Latin: quadraginta quinque )
In OE occurred mixed numerals, where the units usually preceded the tens. They had two cases. One is a case where the units were expressed by Roman numerals and the tens by word-numerals, and the other is a case where the units were expressed by word-numerals and the tens by Roman numerals. They both had the conjunction and between the units and the tens.
(4) .v. & sixti (OEH, Genesis 5:15. Cf. Latin: sexaginta quinque)
(5) þreo & .xxx. (OEH, Genesis 46:15. Cf. Latin: triginta tres)
The score-numerals were made in the ME period. This caused a dramatic change of the word-order of the compound numerals in that the units followed the tens.
(6) foure score and foure (WB, Nehemiah 11:18. Cf. Latin octogintaquattuor)
The middle type (twenty and one) also appeared in the ME period, where the same word-order change occurred, that is, the units followed the tens. Hashimoto (2012: 56) states about the middle type that “the Hebrew middle type and the Latin modern type played an important role in inducing the English middle type, which accelerated the occurrence of the modern type in the English Bibles.” Hashimoto’s statement about the Hebrew influence is supported by the following examples
(7) ושש שיםּש) transliteration: sixty and-six) (Hebrew Bible, Genesis 46:26)
(8) .lx. and .vi. (TP, Genesis. 46:26)
The example (7) is cited from the Hebrew Bible, where most of the compound numerals are expressed by the middle type (Hashimoto 2012). Tyndale translated the Pentateuch directly from the Hebrew Bible and he reproduced the Hebrew middle type in his English translations, as a Roman numeral with and (Type A2), which belongs to the middle type .
It is also possible that the following irregular and new types of the expressions might promote the change from the OE type to the middle type. The score-numerals were created in the ME period, “Presumably from the practice, in counting sheep or large herds of cattle, of counting orally from 1 to 20, and making a ‘score’ (sense 9) or notch on a stick, before proceeding to count the next twenty”. 1 In the score-numerals, numbers larger than score were placed before numbers smaller than it. As a result, chances increased that the word-order ‘tens – units’ would be produced. Therefore the score-numerical systems could be one of the triggers to make a change from the OE word-order ‘units – tens’ to the word-order ‘tens – units’ of the modern type.
Furthermore, Roman numerals with the score-supersubscription ‘ x x ,’ which were brought into English in the early ModE period, had a wordorder where the units were placed after score usually without the conjunction and after it, as shown in (9) and (10). Scocre-numerals in the scoresupersubscription ‘ x x ’ occurred rarely with the conjunction and. One of the rare examples is shown in (11)
1 Vid: OED, sco re
(9) Probably 1459-60: a lely weyng iij xx vj vnc (Paston: 159).
(10) Probably 1459-60: Summa vnc. xl x x viij vnc. (ibid.)
(11) Probably 1459-60: viij xx and xvij vnc. (ibid.)
In the making of rhymed verses, e ither of the two different word-orders was flexibly used. The examples are found often in the late ME and the early ModE periods, as shown below.
(12) a. For thurgh þo sayntes war helid þen
b. Of seke and sore sexty and ten. (Neue Folge : 32)
(13) a. And fel fro Cristes passion euyn
b. To rekyn sexty ȝeres and seuyn (op.cit.: 41)
(14) a. or he wald sese þat sawl of pyne
b. Þan sang he twenty daies & nyen (op.cit.: 148)
(15) a. In Rome Y shałł ȝou steuene
b. And honþred kyrkes fowrty and seuen; (Political: 143)
(16) a. He made colages and kyrkes mony,
b. The nowmbur of foure and fourty, (Tundale: 126)
4. The Middle Type and the Modern Type
The last stage to reach the modern type is a deletion of the conjunction and in the middle type. Many chances occurred to lead the middle type to the modern type. For example, It is sure that the modern types were easily produced, when Roman numerals with the score-supersubscription ‘ x x ’ were read or transliterated; that is, iij x xvj in (9) could be read as ‘sixtysix.’
Other data which might induce the deletion of the conjunction in the middle type appeared in the early Modern English period, probably much earlier. They are Roman numerals with the word-order ‘tens – units’ without the conjunction between the tens and the units, as shown in the following examples.
(17) 1426 -1427: þe xxviij day of August (Paston: 8)
(18) 1450: xxxij. sawcers (Lincoln: 44)
(19) 1530: .xxxv. yere (TP, Genesis. 11:12)
Readings and transliterations of Roman numerals without the conjunction and would produce the modern type , that is, xxviij in (17) can be transliterated as ‘twenty-eight’, xxxij in (18) as ‘thirty-two’ and xxxv in (19) as ‘thirty-five.’
The score-numerals written by English words had usually with the conjunction and after the word score. This score-numerals themselves began to be used without the conjunction in around 1600, as show in the following example.
(20) in the yeir of God a thowsand fyve houn drethe threescore nyntein yeirs, (Autobiography: 295)
The most important contribution to the change is what was going in the world of arithmetic in the sixteenth century; Indo-Arabic arithmetic began to be used widely in the century and, at the same time, Indo-Arabic numerals pervaded Europe naturally and rapidly (Ifrah, 2000: 577). In IndoArabic numerals, of course, the tens precede the units without the conjunction and. The earliest example of Indo-Arabic numerals in our data is shown below.
(21) 1556: He died in the 53 yeir of his age, (Autobiography: 14)
5. OE Type and Modern Type
The modern type appeared in the sixteenth century and became popular in the next century, but the OE type persisted over the century.
(22) 1584: this twentie-sax yeirs, (Autobiography: 203)
(23) 1620-1686: The four and twenty elders (Body of Divinity: 39)
The present paper investigates the data from letters, diaries and documents mainly in the Early Modern English Period as well as English Bibles, and it gives new explanation to their history from the viewpoints of rhyming, score numerals, score-supersubscription, and Indo-Arabic numerals.
Apology = An Apology for Lollard Doctrines, attributed to Wicliffe Now First Printed from a Manuscript in the Library of Trinity College Dublin, introduction and notes by James Henthorn Todd . 1842. London: Camden Society.
Autobiography = The Autobiography and Diary of Mr James Melville, ed. by Robert Pitcairn. 1842. Edinburgh: Printed for the Wodrow Society.
BB = The Bishops’ Bible = The Holie Bible Conteynynge the Olde Testament and the Newe . 1568. London: R. Jugge.
Body of the Divinity = A Body of Divinity: Contained in Sermons upon the Westminster Assembly’s Catechism, Thomas Watson. 1958. London: Banner of Truth Trust.
Hebrew Bible (The) = Biblia Henraica, ed. by Rudolf Kittle . 1977. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelstiftung.
KJ = The King James Bible = The Holy Bible: A Facsimile of the Authorized Version Published in the Year 1611 . (reprinted) 1982. Tokyo: Nan’un-do.
Lincoln = Lincoln Diocese Documents, 1450-1544, ed. by Andrew Clark. 1914. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
OEH = The OE Heptateuch = The Old English Version of the Heptateuch: Ælfric’s Treaties on the Old and New Testament and His Preface to Genesis. (reprinted) 1969. ed. by Samuel John Crawford, Early English Text Society, O.S. 160.
Paston = Paston Letters and Papers of the Fifteenth Century , ed. by Norman Davis. 1976. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Political = Political, Religious, and Love Poems, ed. by Frederick J. Furnivall. 1965. Early English Text Society, O.S. 15
RB = The Rheims-Douai Bible = The Holie Bible Faithfvlly Translated into English, ovt of the Avthentical Latin: Diligently Conferred with the Hebrew, Greeke, and Other Editions in Diuers Languages (vol. I, 1609, vol. II, 1610). Douai: Laurence Kellam. (facsimile reproduction) 1990. Kyoto: Rinsen Book.
TP = Tyndale’s Pentateuch = The Fyrst Boke of Moses Called Genesis, The Seconde Boke of Moses, Called Exodus, …. 1530. Malborow: Hans Luft.
Tundale = Tundale. Das mittelenglische Gedicht über Die Vision des Tundalus auf Grund von vier Handschriften, ed. by Albrecht Wagner. 1893. Halle: M. Niemeyer.
Vulgate (The) = Biblia Sacra Iuxta ulgatam versionem 2 vols, ed. by Robert Weber, 1969. Stuttgart: Württembergische Bibelanstalt.
WB = The Early and Late Wycliffite Bible = The Holy Bible: containing the Old and New Testament, with the Apoc ryphal Books in the Earliest English Versions Made from the Latin Vulgate by John Wycliffe and His Followers, 4 vols. 1982. ed. by Josiah Forshall and Frederic Madden. (reprinted) 1850. New York: AMS Press.
B. Books and Articles Cited
Hashimoto, Isao. 2012. “The Development of Compound Numerals in English Biblical Translations,” Middle and Modern English Corpus Linguistics: A Multi-dimensional Approach (Studies in Corpus Linguistics 50) 49-58. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Ifrah, Georges. 2000. The Universal History of Numbers from Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer (translated from the French by David Bellos, et al.). New York, Chichester, Weinheim, Brisbane, Singapore, and Toronto: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Mitchell, Bruce. 1985. Old English Syntax. Vol. 1. Oxford, Clarendon Press. OED = The Oxford English Dictionary Online. 2013. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rissanen, Matti. 1967. “The Uses of One in Old and Early Middle English”, Mémoires de la Société Néophilologique de Helsinki Publiés sous la Direction de Tauno F. Mustanoja, XXXI. Helsinki: Société Néophilologique.
Schibsbye, Knud. 1977. Origin and Development of the English Language . Vol. III. Copenhagen: Nordisk Sprog- og Kulturforlag.
Wagner, Robert-Léon and Jacqueline Pinchon. 1962. Grammaire du Fran- çais Classique et Modern. Paris: Librairie Hachette.
SHAKE IT, BUT DON’T BREAK IT. THE HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF MARACAS
MURRAY STATE UNIVERSITY
Dr. John Hill
Professor of Percussion
Murray State University.
Shake It, But Don’t Break It. The History and Evolution of Maracas
PowerPoint presentation detailing the history and anthropological evolution of maracas. Live performance using examples of maracas from centuries past and present will bring the often overlooked “side” instrument to center stage.
Shake It, But Don’t Break It: The History and Evolution of Maracas
Dr. John Hill Professor of Percussion
Murray State University Murray, Kentucky USA
I have always had a great fascination with maracas-their sound, appearance, the way one manipulates the motion of the maracas to create different rhythms and sounds. In all my years of study I have never seen in print where the Maracas had originated or how different culture(s) evolved them into the instruments we know today. These unanswered questions led to this research.
In the vast family of percussion instruments maracas are probably one of the most disrespected instruments, more often thought of as toys, party favors, and/or tourist mementos. The often slighted maracas can be found depicted on the packaging of tortilla chips. “Maracas” has even used as the name of restaurants or night clubs.
Just about every culture in the world has or had some form of a rattle/shaker/maraca in their society. It could be a baby’s rattle or a shaman’s rattle used for religious rites and/or healing practices. It is frequently used as a rhythm instrument in village songs. This versatility shows early man’s resourcefulness but the importance of the rattle/shaker/maraca is best shown in the sign language of the American Indian of the plains tribes. The sign for “Rattle” is the same that is used for “Scared” (Peters, 1975).
While maracas are usually associated as a Latin American instrument its origin and the folklore began in Africa. In J. F. Rowbotham’s The History of Music, in 1893 retells a Guinea legend that Arawoniti, a tribal leader or chief, was walking by the riverside brooding over the troubles and miseries of his people. A Crehu (a goddess) arose from the stream bearing in her hand a small branch which she presented to Arawoniti. She instructed him to plant it and then harvest the fruit. This fruit was a calabash. Later, the Crehu arose from the stream a second time carrying some white stones in her hand. She told Arawoniti to place the stones inside the dried fruit or calabash. By following Crehu orders Arawoniti had made the first rattle/maraca (Blades, 1992).
The selection of materials first used to create the early man’s rattle/maraca depended upon indigenous materials. The calabash/gourd does not rot and naturally makes and produces sonorous sounds without any additional materials.
Which now brings us to the fundamental question; what is the difference between rattles/shakers and maracas? The answer is actually quite simple: Maracas are paired rattles/shakers, but with two different tones, one higher in pitch and held in the right hand and one lower in pitch and held in the left hand.
Parts of the Maracas
Gourds seem to be the most prevalent choice for the making of rattle/shakers/maracas by some cultures, but turtle shells have also been used as receptacles. Dried gourds are prepared by washing then sanding the shell. An oil rub is then applied to the shell that leaves a natural gloss. Other cultures prefer to paint the shell (Peters, 1975).
Rattlers (Materials inside the shell)
The inner rattlers can include a wide variety of materials such as: seeds, pebbles, shells, dried moth cocoons, and even animal teeth (Blades, 1992).
The first maracas were probably paired handle gourd rattles. Thirteenth century Aztecs were the first to add actual wooden handles to the gourd shakers called Ayacachti (Weinberg, 1982). This rattle/ shaker was shaped to look like a flower and had tassels and/or feathers attached to the shell. The Ayacachtils were often used to accompany rituals and dances during the height of the Aztec Empire during the 13th – 15th centuries (Christian, 1976). Similar craftsmanship can be still found today in the Hawaiian Maracas, ‘Uli uli. The ‘Uli uli and the Ayacachtils are the only two examples of maracas in world that are played transverse or facing the gourd/coconut shell downward and the flowering feathers/handle facing upward.
The Voice of the Maraca
While the origins of the maracas began in Africa, it is the Latin American and Cuban cultures who advanced the performance practices. Maracas began to really find their voice or role in the late 19th and the early part of the 20th century in Cuba. Cuban musicians began experimenting in what would become perhaps the most influential of all of the early forms of Cuban music, called Son. The early Son was a combination of the African music of slaves and early Spanish folk songs. The instrumentation of these early Sons was the Tres, (a three stringed guitar), and later replaced by guitar, the Marimbula (African Thumb Piano) used for the bass lines, and later replaced by the string bass, and a percussion section that consisted of maracas, claves, guiro, and bongos. By the late 1920’s the ensembles were called Septetos and included the trumpet. By the 1930’s the trumpet-led septetos as well as larger dance or jazz-type big bands played Sons as part of their repertory in the big Havana hotels with the ensembles still employing the percussion section of maracas, claves, guiro, and bongos. The maracas now had its own specialized voice within the rhythmic fabric of Cuban Son and other Latin American music (Payne, 2000).
This rhythmic voice leads us to not only a pioneer in Latin American Jazz as a bandleader, singer, but also as one of the true pioneers of maraca performance: Machito. Born Frank Grillo, Machito was one of the first authentic Cuban singers from Havana and a great maraca player who became successful on the New York scene in 1937. He recorded with several great Latin American bandleaders including Xavier Cugart before forming his own band. Machito was the first to form a Latin band that combined Latin and Jazz together in New York in the early 1940’s. He was also the first to make use of a complete Latin percussion section- a return to the original Son percussion sections (Gordon, 1990). Machito’s influence has been felt in the Latin/Jazz world. But his influence can also be seen in the popular or rock music world of the 1960’s and 1970’s as many front men of this area sang and played maracas. Such as: Davy Jones of the Monkeys, Mick Jagger of the Rolling Stones, and Robert Plant.
Maracas are used in traditional Latin-American rhythms/dances such as the rumba, mambo, merengue, and cha-cha, and while maracas are not used in the tango and they may be used as a substitute for the chocallo (tube shaker) in the samba (Brown, 1968). The maracas’ role in the Latin-American rhythms/dances is to subdivide the beat into eighth notes, filling in the spaces left empty by the rest of the Latin Percussion section (Maracas, claves, cowbell, and guiro).
The Latin American dance craze that came to the United States via Havana and other Latin America countries also brought Latin percussion instruments to the marketplace. American drum manufactures such as the Leedy Drum Company added a Latin American percussion section including their redesigned model of maracas to their catalogs beginning in 1933. Manufactures experimented with new types of shells. Various plastics and even tightly stretched leather or varnished rawhide were used. Buck shot, BB’s, and plastic as rattlers were also employed to increase the volume.
Methods or “How to Play” Latin-American Rhythms books became popular as early as the 1940’s which required publishers to design new ways to notate the rhythmic patterns and the pitch variables for maracas from what was once strictly an aural tradition.
This somewhat standardization of notation enabled maracas to be included in symphonic works such as: Malcolm Arnold’s Fourth Symphony, Steve Reich’s Four Organs, and Ricardo Lorenz’s Concerto for Venezuelan Maracas and Orchestra and Leonard Bernstein’s Candide. Uniquely, Bernstein scored maracas as both instrument and as timpani mallets in West Side Story.
The increasing world popularity of Latin music has brought maracas more attention than ever. Presentations, percussion clinics, recordings, and YouTube performances help preserve the performance practices of maracas’ past and hopefully promote further innovation and inspiration.
Blades, J. (1992). Percussion Instruments and Their History. Westport, CT: The Bold Strummer.
Brown, T. (1968). Clavesmaracascowbellguiro: Various colors paint the Latin-American picture. The Ludwig Drummer, 8(1), 8-9, 42.
Christian, B. (1976). The small concert percussion instruments. Ludwig Drummer, 10 (1).
Gordon, D. (1990). Tito Puente: Polyrhythmic pioneer. Modern Drummer, 14(4), 24-27.
Payne, J. (2000). Tito Puente: King of Latin Music. Briarcliff, NY: Hudson Music LLC.
Peters, G. (1975). The Drummer: Man. A Treatise on Percussion. Wilmette, Ill: Kemper-Peters Publications.
Rowbotham, J. (1885). A History of Music. London: Trübner & Co.
Weinberg, N. (1982). Aztec percussion instruments: Their description and use before Cortes. Percussionist, 19 (2), 76-85.
WELLNESS AS A FRAMEWORK FOR COUNSELOR EDUCATION AND COLLEGE STUDENT INTERVENTION
HOLLINGSWORTH, MARY ANN
UNIVERSITY OF WEST ALABAMA
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT OF INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP AND SUPPORT
Dr. Mary Ann Hollingsworth
Department of Instructional Leadership and Support
College of Education
University of West Alabama.
Wellness as a Framework for Counselor Education and College Student Intervention
This study assessed needs of both students in counselor training and entering freshmen in overall wellness through use of an assessment and intervention within a wellness paradigm The Personal Wellness Questionnaire and Plan developed from this study supports use of wellness assessment and planning as tool for work with college students and graduate students training to be counselors.
Wellness as a Framework for Counselor Education and College Student Intervention Mary Ann Hollingsworth University of West Alabama
Dr. Mary A. Hollingsworth is an assistant professor at the University of West Alabama. She has 15 years of experience as a counselor with populations across the life span as well as settings of academia, community mental health, and primary health care. Her primary research interests and innovative work have been with counseling and college student work through a paradigm of wellness.
Literature supports the use of wellness as a framework for counselor training and intervention with college students. Wellness models provide foundation for work in six areas: emotional, intellectual, physical, social, spiritual, and work. Two additional wellness areas, financial management and time management, are included. This study assessed needs of both students in counselor training and entering freshmen in overall wellness through use of an assessment and intervention within a wellness paradigm The Personal Wellness Questionnaire and Plan developed from this study supports use of wellness assessment and planning as tool for work with college students and graduate students training to be counselors.
Wellness is part of the definition of counseling: “Counseling is a professional relationship that empowers diverse individuals, families, and groups to accomplish mental health, wellness, education, and career goals” (as cited in Meyers, 2014, p. 33). Meyers (2014) noted that wellness has been a core part of the counseling profession throughout its history, with increased concurrent interest as the term has become somewhat of a fad among different professions and even in pop culture.
The realms of graduate study and counselor preparation provide much information on application of a wellness paradigm for counseling practice. Graduate students are often representative of clients or students whom counselors assist in that many of them experience life events for which counseling might be sought. These life events integrate with the multiple components of wellness. As the counseling profession more deeply embraces a paradigm of wellness for practice, this focus is also increasing in counselor preparation.
Several wellness models include multiple components. These models are National Wellness Institute (Hettler, 1977), Wellness Continuum (Ryan & Travis, 1981), High Level Wellness (Ardell, 1986), and The Indivisible Self (Myers & Sweeney, 2005).
A synthesis of the models defines wellness as a state of the totality of a person’s life as mind, body, and spirit interacting with environmental contexts. Throughout life, an individual moves along a continuum from illness to wellness through personal choices and action. Myers and Sweeney have led much of the effort throughout the counseling profession to frame counseling within the paradigm of wellness. Myers and Sweeney (2008) noted that a wellness orientation provides for a strengths-based approach that can maximize human growth and development. This approach supports prevention efforts with clients, students, and future counselors-in-training that may lessen decline in mental health and strengthen capacity for coping when life’s challenges occur. Common dimensions across the models are social, occupational (which could be considered school work for children), spiritual, physical, intellectual, emotional, and environmental.
Additional components that warrant inclusion for assessment and intervention within a counseling paradigm of wellness are finances and time management. Carney and Savitz (1980) conducted a study with 800 university students and 400 university faculty to ascertain the most common areas of concern for which students would self-refer or be referred by faculty to the university counseling center for assistance. Of the 14 concerns noted, faculty rated finances as the second most common problem and students rated this as the third most common problem.
Ronzio (2012) examined the concerns of adult women in the midst of career transitions and found financial security to be a critical factor in the successful management of a career transition. Ronzio noted that much of the counseling time spent with an adult woman making a career transition should focus on assessment of, and planning for, financial management skills and stability. Sauerheber and Bitter (2013) noted the benefit of addressing contextual factors with an engaged couple such as rules and expectations of each person about management of finances.
Financial wellness counseling support is needed both in university and community settings for veterans and their families. Elbogen, Sullivan, Wolfe, Wagner, and Beckham (2013) discussed multiple ways in which these individuals can encounter challenges with financial stability after leaving military service. They also noted that “military experiences can uniquely affect financial well being” (p. 248). Elbogen et al. found that military members may not have learned to budget while in the military due to the provision of housing, rations, and health care. Additionally, multiple deployments may have an adverse impact on financial security for a service member and family. Successful financial wellness in life after the military involved attainment of financial literacy.
Wellness in Time Management
Langberg, Epstein, Becker, Girio-Herrera, and Vaughn (2012) studied an intervention targeting organization and planning skills of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. These authors included management of time in the scope of organization skills, such as planning ahead to have adequate time for academic study and management of time during and after school. The study assessed time management skills and training and encouraged practice with planning and time management.
Scanlon, Bundy, and Matthews (2010) conducted a study that hypothesized measures of meaningful time use would contribute to a prediction of psychological health. They noted that general results in research on time structure and psychological health indicated significant positive associations. Scanlon et al. surveyed 150 unemployed 18- to 25-year old Australians on meaningfulness of time use and health. Study results supported the importance of meaningful time use, especially in reasoning for an activity, in overall health with a person in unemployment.
Wellness Framework for Work with Students
Wolf, Thompson, Thompson, and Smith-Adcock (2014) conducted a study with a semester long student-led wellness program for graduate students in counselor education. This program included both training in wellness practices and implementation of additional wellness activities in daily life. Study findings indicated that student knowledge and practice of wellness increased. Lenz, Sangganjanavanich, Balkin, Oliver, and Smith (2012) also studied the use of a wellness model of supervision for graduate students in a counseling internship and noted that participants increased awareness of wellness and developed counseling skills within this framework that were comparable to students under other models of supervision.
Some counselor training programs include opportunities to earn practicum or internship hours with undergraduate students through their own university counseling center or a departmental counseling lab. As with graduate students, undergraduate students experience a myriad of issues that warrant counseling support. These include daily life skills needs, as well as needs per a mental illness diagnosis.
Increasing Need for Wellness Education
Jodoin and Robertson (2013) noted empirical evidence that college students are coming to campus with more severe psychology concerns than in the past. This has an impact on traditional entry into college as a freshman and also on interventions such as suicide prevention. These authors noted the need for suicide prevention that goes above and beyond the traditional medical-based treatment models. Jodoin and Robertson discussed the Jed Foundation and the Suicide Prevention Research Center research-based model of comprehensive suicide prevention, which is integrated within the SAMSHA Suicide Prevention grant directives currently being implemented at the University of West Alabama. Two components of this model are also components of wellness: Develop Life Skills and Promote Social Networks.
Technology and Wellness Education
The increase of technology has provided an optimal opportunity to promote wellness education and practices for college students in a flexible and user-friendly format. Quartiroli and Zizzi (2012) noted the tendency for entering college students to acquire habits that can lessen overall health and wellness such as gaining the “Freshman 15.” They conducted a study of an 8-week intervention program that was delivered via the Internet. Study results indicated efficacy in institutional provision of preventive services in wellness as a part of the transition to college life. This also presents opportunity for counselors-in-training to develop interventions for their own universities.
This study assessed use of an author-developed assessment, planning, and management instrument(Personal Wellness Questionnaire and Plan – PWQP) to help entering freshman increase awareness of overall wellness and how they could be pro-active in management of that while in college. The study also included use of this instrument as a foundation for graduate students in counselor education on ethical self-care and practice of counseling skills. A convenience sample of current students in a freshman orientation course graduate counselor education students was used for this study. As both groups can represent general adult populations, results of this study could provide a foundation for further study with additional populations.
This study was approved by the University of West Alabama Institutional Review Board.and consisted of two research questions. Research question one “How does a wellness paradigm promote effective self awareness and action in total personal wellness for students?” Research question two was “How does a wellness paradigm promote training in counseling skills?” 67 freshman over three semesters used the Personal Wellness Questionnaire and Plan as a part of their Frehsman Orientation Course as taught by the author. Eighty-one students in five classes engaged in skills practice during each class session with a classmate partner or worked with a volunteer child or adolescent to increase awareness and develop skills for personal wellness.
Freshman Orientation.The PWQP was used in three courses in Freshman Orientation, two spring semester courses and one fall semester course. A total of 67 students participated, with22 % male and 78 % female; 54 % of the students were Black, 45% of the students were white, and less than one % were other. 11 % of the students were over the age of 25. All other students were 18 – 25 years of age.
Graduate students in counselor training.The PWQP was used in five graduate courses in counseling and psychology as a framework for skills training and practice. These courses were two sections of Counseling Theories and Techniques, two sections of Counseling Children and Adolescents, and one section of Therapeutic Relationships. A total of 81 students participated with 12.3% male and 87.7% female; 87.7% of the students were Black and 12.3% of the students were White. Ages represented were 2.4% were 18–25 years old, 70.4% were 26–35 years old, 23.5% were 36–50 years old, and 3.7% were over 50 years old.
The PWQP was used for students in both groups. The PWPQ has three components. Participants first responded to items in each of eight areas of wellness to indicate to what degree that statement fit them. The eight areas of wellness are Emotional, Financial, Intellectual, Physical, Social, Spiritual, Time Management, and Work. Then participants went back and indicated priority for effort to work on wellness areas in which they did not currently have as high a level of positive practice. The third component consisted of writing a follow-up plan to address their priority needs for wellness work. This instrument is provided at Appendix A.
Freshman Orientation.Students in Freshman Orientation engaged in class and online discussion about their progress with wellness needs. At the beginning of the course, students completed PWQP. Class discussion consisted of the instructor reviewing information about the different areas of wellness and giving students opportunity to share progress and helpful information they had for other students. A discussion forum was also set up in Blackboard for each of the eight areas of wellness for students to engage in each week. Students were required to participate in each forum through sharing a resource and what they helpful about that resource. At the end of the course, students wrote a short essay to describe their overall progress in working on their personal wellness.
Graduate students in counselor training.Students in the Counseling Theories and Techniques class and the Therapeutic Relationships class engaged in skills practice during each class session with a classmate partner in which they applied content focus for the respective class. Students worked with the same partner throughout the course and each class’s skills practice included role play as the counselor and the client. Each class member was free to share the concern from the individual PWQP that he or she would like to work on in the skills practice. In Counseling Theories and Techniques, students were asked to practice techniques per the theory of study in the respective class session. Examples were, use of “free association” with the psychoanalytic approach and use of the “exception question” with solution-focused therapy. In Therapeutic Relationships, students were asked to practice the focus skills studied in that respective class session. For example, one class focused on the skills of probing and summarizing and another class focused on goal setting.
Students in Counseling Children and Adolescents were asked to work with a volunteer child or adolescent to increase awareness and develop skills for personal wellness. As this course focused on application of counseling theories to work with children and adolescents, these students selected a theoretical framework within which to work with their volunteer. They first obtained written permission from the volunteer and caregiver for participation in the project. Then they conducted a personal wellness assessment that was a modification of the PWQP to fit younger participants. From this assessment, they worked with the volunteer to select an area of wellness to work on for 6 weeks of the course. Course students met with the volunteer on a weekly basis and used their chosen theoretical approach to assist their volunteer to make the desired wellness improvements.
Students in all classes maintained a portfolio throughout the course that included the initial assessment of wellness for self or a volunteer, a weekly journal entry that described and assessed the skills practiced and outcomes, and a final paper that provided summary of the work throughout the course in skills practice, progress on goals accomplishment, and reflection on what was learned and what was still needed to continue progress initiated in the intervention started in the course. Table 3 is a copy of the weekly self-assessment for students in Therapeutic Relationships.
Students in Freshman Orientation shared results of this work on wellness through both interaction in their Blackboard discussion forums and end of course essays on overall progress on personal wellness throughout the course. These essays indicated increased awareness in areas that were important to their wellness. Students also indicated intent to continue monitoring their self-care, especially in physical wellness.
Graduate counseling students indicated how self-awareness on wellness had progressed through their end of course reflection paper. In the two classes on Theories and Techniques, the final assessment on competency in skill usage was a student demonstration in which each student randomly drew a skill to practice in a given scenario in which a classmate role-played the client; 67% of the students were able to correctly use the randomly drawn skill with their client role model. In the two classes on Counseling Children and Adolescents, students were required to demonstrate a skill of their choice that they had used with their volunteer. Some students provided a video of the specific activity and some students led the class in an activity. All students demonstrated correct application of the skill chosen. In the class on Therapeutic Relationships, students submitted a weekly journal in which a self-assessment was provided on skills usage. These indicated that most students grew in appropriate use of skills as they answered the self-assessment questions each week. Students in all classes indicated efficacy of the wellness framework for learning skills through comments with their end of course evaluation through an overall rating of 3.73 in agreement with the statement “I have become more competent in this area due to this course. Individual student comments included perception of benefit in learning “how to become a counselor and what & how to say something to a person in need, practical application of course content, and the self-assessment portion of the class.
Previous research provides support for the use of wellness as a framework in counseling and in counselor training. Wellness models previously provided foundations for work with clients in issues for six areas of emotional, intellectual, physical, social, spiritual, and work wellness. Assessment of needs in this study indicated additional wellness concerns in the areas of financial management and time management. A literature review on these areas supported inclusion of these two areas in a wellness framework for counseling. Further research is needed to clarify the significance of these as part of a wellness paradigm for counseling. Surveys of graduate students, graduate faculty, and the work done by participants in this study indicate an opportunity for counselors to assist their clients in both problem prevention and problem resolution through a wellness framework of practice. The Personal Wellness Questionnaire and Plan protocol from this study supports use of wellness assessment and planning as an intervention in work with clients toward whole person wellness.
While this study included only students at a small regional university in West Alabama, further study in other settings would strengthen the knowledge base on usefulness of a wellness paradigm for counseling. Further study is needed on inclusion of financial management and time management as components of a wellness paradigm for counseling. Further study would especially be helpful on application of wellness assessment and intervention within counseling practice. Finally, this study supports the need for continuing advocacy of counselors to promote practice that is rooted in promotion of whole personal wellness for self and clients. The study also supports the need for institutions of higher education to promote total personal wellness awareness and practice with students from entering freshmen throughout college careers.
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Hettler, B. (1977). Six dimension model. Stevens Point, WI: National Wellness Institute.
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Lenz, A. S., Sangganjanavanich, V. F., Balkin, R. S., Oliver, M., & Smith, R. L. (2012). Wellness model of supervision: A comparative analysis. Counselor Education & Supervision, 51, 207–223.
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Myers, J. E., & Sweeney, T. J. (2005b). The indivisible self: An evidence-based model of wellness. The Journal of Individual Psychology, 61(3), 269–279.
Myers, J. J., & Sweeney, T. L. (2008). Wellness counseling: The evidence base for practice. Journal of Counseling and Development, 86, 482–494.
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Personal Wellness Questionnaire & Plan
Whether the major focus of your life is being a student, working a job, or enjoying your retirement, there are multiple areas of your life that contribute to the success of your major focus. Those areas together make up your personal wellness.
The purpose of this questionnaire is to indicate your current profile of overall wellness and to help you plan a foundation from which to build and strengthen your different areas of personal wellness to better support the major focus of your life.
In each of the following 8 components of personal wellness, please indicate how often the following statements apply to you. For the total score for each component, add up the columns and enter the total of those.NOTE: Adults were asked to complete the form with pen. Children and adolescents completed this verbally as they were read the statements and asked to indicate which category applied to them—Very little of the time, Sometimes, or Most of the time. Statements were indicated as Not Applicable with children and adolescents if the item did not apply to them at that time. An example would be if a child did not have a credit card.
TOTAL WELLNESS SCORE:Add up your scores for all 8 components of wellness to give you your total wellness score.
PRIORITY FOR EFFORT:It is common for people to have some areas in which they are well much of the time, some areas in which they are well some of the time, and some areas in which they are well very little or none of the time. As you look back at your scores in the different areas, note the areas in which you indicated “very little of the time.” Pick one of these in each of the 8 wellness components to prioritize your efforts for improvement. If you were well enough in a component that your lowest scores were “sometimes,” then choose one of these response areas as a priority for attention.
NOW you are ready to develop your Personal Wellness Plan. FOLLOW-UP PLAN: Complete the following for each priority area that you indicated.
Area to work
To keep yourself on track, review the questionnaire on a regular basis (such as monthly or quarterly) to check if you have made improvement or gone backwards in areas. Becoming well and staying well requires regular maintenance—just like our vehicles. A regular check-up can help you stay well and help you better accomplish the main focus of your life.
AN ANALYSIS OF ING-FORM AND IT’S APPLICATION TO ENGLISH EDUCATION
SHINSHU UNIVERSITY, JAPAN
FACULTY OF ARTS.
SHINSHU UNIVERSITY, JAPAN
FACULTY OF ARTS.
An Analysis of ing-form and its Application to English Education
Japanese learners of English have difficulties in fully mastering the usages of –ing form. This presentation will examine the mistakes of using –ing form made by Japanese EFL learners, and through such analysis, we will seek to find a better pedagogy in teaching –ing form to Japanese EFL learners.
An Analysis of –ing Form and its Application to English Education
Hayato Ito, Shinshu-University, Faculty of Arts
In Japanese English education, we are taught progressive form, present participle and participial construction as the –ing form. Japanese EFL students have difficulties in fully mastering these usages. In this analysis, we will pick up participial construction.
According to Sugiyama (1998), participial construction is similar to Japanese vague expression “~shite” because participial construction is expressed without conjunction which specifies the relation between main clause and participle clause. However, we cannot declare that English native speakers and Japanese students use participial construction in the same situation. We would like to clarify the difference of using the participial construction between native speakers and Japanese students.
In this paper, our concern is to consider participial construction with present participle. We are not concerned here with the past participle. In the next chapter, we will examine previous studies.
2. Previous Studies
2.1. Langacker (1991)
Langacker (1991) showed the classification of verbs. Verbs can be classified into perfective process and imperfective process. The perfective process is specifically bounded in time. In contrast, the imperfective process is not bounded in time and the component states don’t change through time. (Figure.1)
He also studied the problem of progressive form. He emphasizes that the function of progressive form is imperfectivizing. By adding be…-ing, we exclude the beginning and the ending of the action and focus on the homogeneous internal state. This is the concept of progressive form developed by Langacker. To take a simple example, in contrast to She examined it, which designates a complete act of examination and specifies its past occurrence, She was examining it merely indicates that such act was under way. (Figure.2)
In addition, Langacker (2008) applied this concept to the present participle. The beginning and end of the verbal process lie outside the immediate temporal scope, which delimits the relationship profiled by the participle.
The foregoing argument would be accepted by most people, but it leaves unanswered certain aspects of the participial construction. I will show you another study which is concerned with participial construction.
2.2. Hayase (1992)
Hayase(1992) studied the problem of participial construction. She examined each type of participial construction, and suggested a schema. She gave some examples to illustrate her analysis.
(1) Offering a prayer, she was thinking about Bill.
(2) Walking along the street, I met her.
(3) Offering a prayer, she went to bed.
(4) A lamp suddenly went out, leaving us in utter darkness.
(5) Looking back, she threw a kiss to me
In sentence (1), participle clause X shows the state offering a prayer, and main clause Y shows the state She was thinking about Bill. X and Y show the state at the same time (Figure.3). In sentence (2), participle clause X shows the state walking along the street, and main clause Y shows the event I met her. The event Y happens at some point during the state of X (Figure.4).
In sentence (3), main clause Y shows the event she went to bed, and the participle clause X shows the state offering a prayer. The event Y happens after the state X (Figure.5). In sentence (4), participle clause X shows the state leaving us in utter darkness, and the main clause Y shows the event a lamp suddenly went out. The state X begins after the event Y (Figure. 6).
In sentence (5), participle clause X shows the event looking back and main clause Y shows the event she threw a kiss to me. These two events happen simultaneously (Figure.7).
To sum up, in all situations in her investigation, a main clause arises in the temporal range of the participle phrase (Figure.8). It follows from what has been said that we can find simultaneity between the main clause and the participle clause.
I found two problems in this study. For one thing, it didn’t examine what determines the meaning of participial construction sentence. What is more, it didn’t mention how Japanese use this construction in English.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify how the meaning of participial construction sentence is determined and how Japanese students construe participial construction. In this research, I will classify the meanings of participial construction into 6 groups (when, reason/cause, attendant circumstance, condition, concession, idiom), following Sugiyama (1998).
3.1. Conditions which Decide the Meaning
To begin, we will examine conditions which determine the meaning of participial construction. To observe the problem, I collected examples of participial construction used by native speakers from CEENAS. 1
3.1.1. The Difference between Preposing and Postposing
First of all, we will classify the examples used by native speakers of English. (Figure. 9) In addition to this, I will examine that whether the participle clause is preposed or postposed. I divided them into two groups, “preposed” and “postposed”, to find the difference in usage. (Figure. 10)
1 In this paper, I use CEEJUS (Corpus of English Essays Written by Japanese University Students) and CEENAS (Corpus of English Essays Written by Native Speakers). Their topics are restricted to “It is important for college students to have a part time job.” and “Smoking should be completely banned at all the restaurants in this country.” In CEEJUS, the essays are classified based on the score of TOEIC.
We can observe from the table that the participle clauses which express reason/cause and condition are mainly preposed.
(6) Turning to the left, you will see a large building.
(7) Not knowing what to say, I remained silent. (Sugiyama 1998: p.417)
Sentence (6) is an example which expresses the meaning of condition. In this sentence, the preposed participle clause shows the precondition of the main clause.
Sentence (6) is an example which expresses the meaning of condition. In this sentence, the preposed participle clause shows the precondition of the main clause.
Another thing we can conclude from the table is that the meaning of when and attendant circumstance is mainly postposed. Looking at the examples of when, 11 sentences in 12 occurred with either the conjunction, “when” or “while”. This usage is idiosyncratic in participial construction because it specifies the relation between the main clause and the participle clause by using a conjunction. Therefore, it can be said that this usage is unusual for participial construction. Added to this, to look at the examples of attendant circumstance, 9 sentences in 10 express the meaning of soshite2. To take sentence (4) as an example, the state of the postposed participle clause (leaving us in utter darkness) arises after the event of the main clause (A lamp suddenly went out).
3.1.2. The Concept of Participial Construction
It follows from what has been said that the preposed participle clause makes ground of the postposed main clause by expressing the precondition. This is the main concept of the participle construction. As I examined above, the postposed participle clause sentences were expressed with the conjunctions, “when” or “while”. This is an unusual usage of the participial construction. Another example expressed by the postposed participle clause shows that it exhibits the event or state which arises after the event or state of main clause. These examples are not the central meaning of the participial construction which expresses simultaneity.
In fact, we could find some exceptions which are opposed to this concept. The sentence I was lying in bed, watching TV. (Watanuki, Petersen 2006 : p169) is opposed to the main concept of participial construction that we discussed above. Though the participle phrase is postposed, the state of lying in bed functions as the ground in this sentence. The condition that the preposed sentence makes the ground for the postposed sentence is not violated in this example.
3.2. The Participial Construction Used by Japanese Students
From now, we shall concentrate on how Japanese students construe the participial construction, comparing it with native speakers. We will begin with examining the differences in meaning. Then we will compare the usage of attendant circumstance. Finally, we will examine the difference of the usage of when.
3.2.1. The Meanings of Participial Construction
We shall now look more carefully into the meaning of participial construction as used by Japanese English learners and native speakers. I searched CEEJUS and CEENAS to find the difference in meaning used by native speakers, advanced Japanese students, intermediate Japanese students and beginner Japanese students (Figure.11).
2 “Soshite” is a Japanese word which is equivalent to “and then” or “after that”.
The table shows the classification of the examples found in the essays. As the table indicates, beginner students do not use participial construction in 40 sentences. It may be difficult for beginner class students to use participial construction.
We can also observe that Japanese students use idioms like “judging from” and “generally speaking” many times. I perhaps they use participial construction by memorizing idioms.
Finally, Japanese students also have a tendency of not using the meaning of reason/cause. Sentences which express reason or cause have what we would call a time lag between the main clause and the participle clause. Perhaps this is why Japanese students do not usually construe reason/cause participial constructions because they usually construe participial constructions when there is a strong simultaneity.
We will investigate the results relating to when and attendant circumstance found in the table.
3.2.2. The meaning of When
As shown in the table, we could find 14 sentences of time for native speakers and 12 sentences of when for Japanese students. Comparing the difference between native speakers and Japanese students, 12 sentences of the 14 by native speakers occurred with the conjunctions, “when” or “while” as in sentence (6). In the case of Japanese students, only 4 sentences occurred with the conjunctions, “when” or “while”. As I stated before, this usage is idiosyncratic in participial construction because it specifies the relationship between main clause and participle clause by using a conjunction. Therefore, it can be said that this usage is unusual for participial construction.
(6) It is important that universities consider this fact when setting course work, and should try to be flexible with lectures, meetings and such.
To sum up, native speakers express the meaning of when which shows the simultaneity by exceptional usage of the participial construction. In contrast, Japanese students express the meaning of when by central usage.
3.2.3. The Meaning of Attendant Circumstance
For the present, we will discuss about the meaning of attendant circumstance. In Sugiyama (1998), attendant circumstance consists of 2 meanings, nagara and soshite. I will take examples from Hayase (1992) to illustrate this. Sentence (1), “Offering a prayer, she was thinking about Bill”, expresses the meaning of nagara3. In this example, the state of the main clause and the participle clause arise simultaneously. Sentence (3), “Offering a prayer, she went to bed”, expresses soshite. In this example, the event “she went to bed” happens after the state “offering a prayer”. In this situation, there is a time lag between main clause and participle clause.
To find the difference of using attendant circumstance between native speakers and Japanese students, I looked at the examples of soshite and nagara usage found in essays. The data of native speakers shows that 9 in 13 sentences express a meaning equivalent to the word soshite in Japanese. Sentence (7) is an example which expresses the meaning soshite. In the case of Japanese students, I cannot find any sentences which express the meaning soshite in the 5 attendant circumstance sentences. We can see from this data that Japanese students don’t use the meaning, soshite, which has time lag between the main clause and the participle clause.
(7) Also, when people breathe smoke, it alters the taste of food, making it taste bad.
3.2.4. The Construal of Japanese Students
Let me summarize the main points that have been made in this chapter. In 3.2.1, we found that Japanese students don’t express the meaning of cause-result relation which has time lag between the main clause and the participle clause. In 3.2.2, we clarified that Japanese students express the meaning of time by central usage of the participial construction unlike exceptional usage which is mainly used by native speakers. In 3.2.3, we proved that Japanese students cannot express the meaning of soshite in attendant circumstance which has a time lag between the main clause and the participle clause.
All these examples make it clear that Japanese students can use participial construction sentences when the main clause and the participle clause arise simultaneously. However, they are poor at expressing participial construction which has a time lag.
We can assume from these analysis that participial construction, as used by Japanese students, has a different tendency from that of native speakers. The schema shows that participial constructions used by Japanese students (Figure.12) have strong simultaneity compared to native speaker’s usage (Figure.8). As I showed in chapter 2, Hayase (1992) suggested that main clause arises in the temporal range of the participle phrase. Unlike native speakers, Japanese students have trouble perceiving events that occurred immediately before or after the participle clause as being simultaneous.
In this chapter, we will verify my hypothesis by offering supports from three aspects. In the first place, we will examine preposing and postposing of Japanese students. In the second place, we will check the simultaneity of participial construction used by Japanese students. Furthermore, we will inspect the relationship between the main clause and the participle clause.
4.1. Preposing and Postposing of Japanese Students
If my hypothesis is correct, Japanese students don’t care about preposing or postposing because the participial construction used by them has strong simultaneity. On the other hand, native speakers distinguish preposing and postposing to make the passage of time clear. For example, in the sentence He sent me a telegram, saying that he would arrive at ten, the event of the postposed clause happens after the main clause. I checked all examples to determine whether the participle clause is preposed or postposed. (Figure. 13)
What we could find from the table is that Japanese students use the meaning of when and attendant circumstance by both preposing and postposing unlike native speakers. The above proves the hypothesis is correct.
4.2. The Test about the Simultaneity of Participial Construction
From now, we will support our hypothesis by testing whether Japanese students use participial construction to express the meaning of soshite. I gave a test to a Japanese university freshman class. The class has 33 students. The content of the test is to translate Japanese sentences into English. I gave four Japanese sentences consisting of two soshite sentences and two nagara sentences. In the case of the soshite sentences, they didn’t use participial construction to express the meaning of soshite. In the 33 sentences, they used “and” instead of using the participial construction. The rest of the sentences are ungrammatical sentences or expressed with other usages. On the other hand, in the case of nagara, participial construction is used in 21 sentences. Four sentences are expressed with “and”, and the rest of the sentences are ungrammatical or expressed with other usages. (Figure. 14)
All these findings make it clear that Japanese students are poor at using participial construction which has a time lag between main clause and participle clause. In contrast, they can use participial construction when they express the meaning of nagara which expresses simultaneity. From what we discussed above, we could say that our hypothesis is correct.
4.3 The Test about the Relation between Main Clause and Participle Clause
For the present, we will support our hypothesis by testing the relationship between main clause and participle clause. I gave a test to another Japanese university freshman class. The content of the test is to translate English sentences into Japanese. I gave sentence (8) as a question.
(8) Her costume ripping open, she sang an aria.
There being no context, we could find the meaning of time, concession and attendant circumstance inconsistently in the answers. But this is not the problem in my research. Another thing we could find in the answer of the test is that some students could not make a distinction between the main clause and the participle clause. 20 students in 27 translated the sentences correctly. 7 students, however, translated the sentences, as shown in sentence (9).
(9) Singing an aria, the costume of the singer ripped open.
They didn’t care about the relationship between main clause and participle clause. We can assume that this can be explained by simultaneity of participial construction. They don’t care about preposing and postposing of participle clause because they construe participial construction as having strong simultaneity. The findings above verifies that our hypothesis is correct.
We may, therefore, reasonably conclude that the preposed participle clause makes ground of the sentence which expresses the precondition of the main clause. This is the main concept of participle construction. As far as the difference of participial construction usage between native speakers and Japanese students, participial construction usage used by Japanese students (Figure.12) has strong simultaneity compare to that of native speakers.
In fact, we could investigate the difference in using participial construction between native speakers and Japanese student. However, there is room for argument on how can we apply it to English teaching as a second language. We take up this question in the further study
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